Articles

  1. TrioQSoftgels–A Vital nutrient support for celluar energy metabolism & oxidative injury Download Article

    Govind Shukla, D. Sruthi Rao, C.J. Sampath Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (498-505)
    • No of Download = 131

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    Mitochondrian of the cells play a vital role in the production of energy at cellular level which is essential for the survival of a cell. CoQ10 is one of the coenzyme in the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane where oxidative phosphorylation occurs for the production of ATP from the reducing equivalents such as NADPH2, FADH2, etc. Besides, CoQ10 works as an antioxidant, protecting lipids and other cell components from oxidation. Thus, it is a particularly promising cardioprotective agent. Apart from this there are so many functions of CoQ10 which are vital for the sustenance of life. When cells age, mitochondrial CoQ10 levels decrease. But dietary supplementation has been shown to help, maintain energy production and aid persons against disorders of CoQ10 deficiency disorders. This review gives an overview of functions of the CoQ10, reports related to consumption versus alleviation of disesases and its importance of dietary supplement in nowadays life.

  2. A prospective drug utilization review of hypertension therapy as per JNC VII guidelines in a south India tertiary care hospital Download Article

    NavyaKalukoori, Dr.S.Santhosh Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (506-517)
    • No of Download = 81

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    Objective The main objective of our study is to analyze the prescription patterns of antihypertensive drugs and adherence to JNC VII guidelines in a South India tertiary care hospital. Method Drug utilization data of 280 hypertensive patients, attending medicine Out Patient Department of Employees’ State Insurance Corporation Model Hospital from January 2014 to June 2014 was collected from 24 hour hospital pharmacy. Results 280 patients were included in this study. Drug utilization rates in all study subjects till date stands at Diuretics (30.62%), Angiotensin receptor blockers (27.82%), β-Blockers (11.7%), Calcium channel blockers (13.5%), ACE Inhibitors (16.07%). The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drugs were diuretics followed by ARBs, ACE inhibitors, Beta Blockers, and CCBs. As for individual medicines, hydrochlorothiazide were the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drug followed by Telmisartan amlodipine, atenolol , ramipril, Toramide, losartan and. 69.6% received mono therapy and 30.4% received combination therapy (including fixed drug combinations). The prescription pattern was found to be in accordance with JNC VII guidelines. Conclusion The general pattern of antihypertensive utilization seems to be in accordance with the JNC VII guidelines for management of hypertension.

  3. Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers using spirometry – a hospital based study Download Article

    Mohammad Mubarik Naqash, Somnath Verma, Tariq Ahmad, Muzafar Naik, Rajesh Minia, Ankush Sharma
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (518-523)
    • No of Download = 104

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    Background Smokers with suspected COPD seek medical attention when they become dyspnoeic on mild to moderate exertion, but by than half of the ventilatory reserves are lost irreversibly. Hence it seems logical to diagnose COPD early before development of significant symptoms. Since smoking cessation in early COPD is found to reduce rapid decline of ventilatory function in smokers, its early detection in asymptomatic smokers is likely to motivate smokers to make an attempt to quit smoking thereby halting its progression to more advanced stage. Material and Methods The study was conducted at Sher-i-Kashmir institute of Medical sciences , Medical college, Bemina ,Srinagar in total number of 350 males subjects . Those are regular smokers, 30 years of age and above with no significant respiratory symptoms except for occasional cough and willing to undergo spirometry. The study was prospective in design. All ethical considerations were taken care of during the study and the recruitment process was started only after ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee as per norms and all the individuals gave their informed consent to participate in the study. The informed consent taken in local language. Results A total of 350 males were evaluated by spirometry. Overall airway obstruction was seen in 43 (12.2%) subjects. Mild obstruction was seen in 42(97.7%) and moderate obstruction in 1 (2.35%) subjects. Among these, 16 (38.9%) were between the age groups of 35-45, 18(42.8%) were in the age group of 45-55, 8(19.04%) were in the age of more than 55 years and moderate obstruction (GOLD Stage 2) was seen in 1 (2.35%) who was in the age group of 35-45. Obstructive pattern was observed in 40 out of 90 subjects, with smoking index >200 and 3 out of 260 subjects with smoking index of ≤200, which was statistically significant (p-value <0.005). Conclusion Early detection of COPD by spirometry especially in smokers more than 40 years of age and with smoking index of more than 200 is likely to reduce the overall burden of disease.

  4. Effect of deep cervical flexor exercises on pain, range of motion and neck strength in patients with chronic neck pain Download Article

    Shailesh Gardas, Pratiksha Shetty
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (524-529)
    • No of Download = 87

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    Background Neck pain is an unpleasant sensory experience in the neck which may be manifested as fatigue, tension or pain that radiates to the shoulders, upper extremities or head.It is becoming increasingly common throughout the world with two-thirds of the population having neck pain at some point in their lives. Hence, we examined the effect of deep cervical flexor exercises (DCF) on pain, range of motion and neck strength in patients with chronic neck pain. Methodology 30 subjects with non specific chronic neck pain were recruited in this study. 15 subjects were given conventional treatment whereas 15 subjects received DCF exercises along with conventional treatment. Treatment was given for a period of 4 week (3 times per week). Subjects were evaluated for pain with Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), cervical ranges using a measuring tape method and deep cervical muscle strength using blood pressure cuff with dial ( for biofeedback ) at the beginning and end of 4 weeks of treatment. Results On intra-group comparison in the conventional group and DCF group, all the outcome measures namely; Numerical pain rating scale (NRS) (at rest and on activity) , range of motion and deep cervical muscle strength showed significant improvement post treatment (p ≤ 0.05). However, the mean values of DCF were more significant than conventional. Whereas inter group comparison revealed statistical significance only in neck strength. Conclusion Both conventional and DCF exercises improved pain, range of motion and neck strength post treatment.

  5. Design and characterization of pentoxifyllinepharmacosomes by solvent evaporation method Download Article

    Viswanath V, Rajaram C, RahathFathima S
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (530-543)
    • No of Download = 87

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    Aim The objective of the present investigation is to formulate the Pentoxifyllinepharmacosomes using 32 factorial design technique. Methods Pentoxifylline is drug of choice for treatment of patients with intermittent claudication on the basis of chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs and is a BCS class II drug. Pentoxifyllinepharmacosomes were prepared by solvent evaporation method using variable concentrations of Lecithin. The formulation design is developed by altering the concentrations of Pentoxifylline and Lecithin in a fixed ratio and considered as independent variables assigned X1 and X2 respectively. Whereas, the time required to release 10% (t10%), 50% (t50%), 75% (t75%), and 90% (t90%) are considered as the dependent variables. The design developed total 9 formulations which were formulated and evaluated as per the pharmacopoeial tests. Results The results reveal that the developed formulations are in the pharmacopoeial limits. Further, the formulations are subjected to in-vitro drug release studies through kinetic modeling which ultimately lead to the development of slope, intercept and regression coefficient. The resultant is implied for the generation of various polynomial equations for t10%, t50%, t75%, and t90% drug release which confirms the optimized formulation as F1. Conclusion Based on the results it can be concluded that the best optimized formulation is F1 and follows first order kinetics. Further, Higuchi kinetics reveals that the formulation follows non-Fickian diffusion anomalous transport (n= 0.723)

  6. GLUTATHIONE: A master antioxidant helps to prevent damage to cell by reactive oxygen species Download Article

    Sumit Agarwal, Govind Shukla
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (544-555)
    • No of Download = 93

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    Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea. Glutathione is capable of preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides, and heavy metals. It is a tripeptide with a gamma peptide linkage between the carboxyl group of the glutamate side chainand the amine group of cysteine, and the carboxyl group of cysteine is attached by normal peptide linkage to a glycine. Thiol groups are reducing agents, existing at a concentration around 5 mM in animal cells. Glutathione reduces disulfide bonds formed within cytoplasmicproteins to cysteines by serving as an electron donor. In the process, glutathione is converted to its oxidized form, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), also called L-(–)-glutathione. Once oxidized, glutathione can be reduced back by glutathione reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor. The ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione within cells is often used as a measure of cellular oxidative stress.

  7. Choice of root canal irrigants by general dental practitioners of Tamilnadu - A questionnaire study Download Article

    Dr. A. Jayasenthil, M.D.S, Dr. K. Indu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (556-561)
    • No of Download = 75

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    Aim To find out the choice of root canal irrigant by general dental practitioners Methodology A questionnaire consisting of 20 questions were randomly distributed to 500 dental practitioners in Tamilnadu. The results were then analyzed and tabulated. Results It was found in the study that mostly dental practitioners prefer normal saline combined with sodium hypochlorite as primary irrigant. Conclusion Saline is the primary choice of irrigant in root canal procedures. It is necessary for the dental practitioners to update the knowledge of recent root canal irrigants with their uses.

  8. Larvicidal activity of different natural essential oils against musquito larva Download Article

    Nirupama K V, Pavithra T, Shivakumar BK, Rajan M, T. Tamizh Mani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (562-567)
    • No of Download = 86

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    Mosquitoes have been a constant problem in the community they continuously transmit serious diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to eliminate larvae of mosquitoes using different natural essential oils isolated from Neem [azadiractha indica], vitex negundo [nirgundi vitex] and clove [Eugenia caryophyllus]. This was done by comparing the span of time the larvae were exterminated upon exposure to treatments with Five various concentrations of the mixture of essential oils. The time (in minutes) of mortality was measured for each treatment application. Results showed a statistically significant difference between various concentrations of oils with alcohol shows positive control of insecticide and control the alcohol. The various concentrations of oils and ethanol displayed a statistically insignificant difference when compared to the positive control. The different concentrations of essential oils extracts, therefore has larvicidal activity against mosquito larvae, though thorough processing is still necessary for assured efficiency.

  9. Impact of chronic heart failure on 6 minute walk distance and quality of life Download Article

    Dr.Rachna Arora (PT), Dr.Shruti Prabhakaran Nair
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (568-573)
    • No of Download = 72

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    Background and Aims Exercise intolerance, poor prognosis, and poor quality of life are the hallmarks of chronic heart failure. Quality of life and physiological well-being has been demonstrated to deteriorate more seriously in patients with chronic heart failure. Hence, this study aimed to find relationship of Six Minute walk distance and Quality of Life with the severity (ejection fraction) of Heart failure. Methods and Results 50 patients aged 45-75 years with chronic heart failure (ejection fraction less than 40% belonging to NYHA class II- III ) were included in the study. They were asked to fill the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire after which subjects performed 6 minute walk test as per American Thoracic Society guidelines. Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient test revealed a weak positive correlation between ejection fraction and 6 MWD(r= 0.22, p=0.124) and a weak negative correlation between ejection fraction and QOL (r= -0.23, p=0.11) which was statistically not significant. Conclusion There is no relationship of 6 minute walk distance and quality of life with the severity (ejection fraction) in patients with chronic heart failure.

  10. Comparative Study Analysis and Rationality Assessment of Antibiotics in General Medicine Department of a Tertiary Level Teaching Hospital in South India Download Article

    Shaik Kareemulla, Dr. Pankaj Kumar Sharma, Dr. Birendra Shrivastava , Dr. Khaja Pasha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (574-592)
    • No of Download = 84

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    Rational use of medicines requires that "patients receive medications appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community". Irrational use of medicines is a major problem worldwide. WHO estimates that more than half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them correctly? The overuse, underuse or misuse of medicines results in wastage of scarce resources and widespread health hazards. Examples of irrational use of medicines include: use of too many medicines per patient ("poly-pharmacy"); inappropriate use of antimicrobials, often in inadequate dosage, for non-bacterial infections; over-use of injections when oral formulations would be more appropriate; failure to prescribe in accordance with clinical guidelines. The aim of the research is to study the comparative study analysis and to determine the Rational / Irrational use of antibiotics in a tertiary care hospital along with its beneficial and adverse outcomes and to Intervene strategies from pharmacist perspective to promote rational use of antibiotics to improve therapeutic outcomes in patients thereby improving quality of life (QOL) of patients. The study was carried out for a period of 24-36 months in Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences, Shadan Hospital, Hyderabad. It is a single centered, prospective observational study. Subjects of both genders who indicated with antibiotic therapy are taken in our study. On assessment, in a total of 3685 patients, it was concluded that, 1565 cases were male, 2120 cases were female, 1425 patients were Literates, 2260 patients were Illiterates, 1060 patients belongs to Low class, 1645 patients belongs to Middle class and 980 patients belongs to High class. In a total of 3685 prescriptions, it was concluded that, 2594 prescriptions (71%) were rationally prescribed and 1091 prescriptions (29%) were prescribed irrationally. In a total of 4700 antibiotics, it was concluded that, Prescriptions with single antibiotic are 1856, accounted for 39%, Prescriptions with 2 antibiotics are 2004, accounted for 44% and Prescriptions with 3 antibiotics are 840, accounted for 17%. In a total of 4700 antibiotics, it was concluded that, Cephalosporins (1420 antibiotics) were found to be highly prescribed antibiotic category accounted for 30.21%. Aminoglycosides (548 antibiotics) accounted for 11.65%, Macrolides (1165 antibiotics) accounted for 24.78%. Quinolones (902 antibiotics) accounted for 19.19%. Penicillins (385 antibiotics) accounted for 8.19% and Tetracyclines (278 antibiotics) accounted for 5.91%. There is a need of educational programs to promote rational use of antibiotics.

  11. Utilization of furosemide to increase urine production as a negative contrast media in CT urography Download Article

    Muhamad Fa’ik, M. Choiroel Anwar, Rini Indrati, A. Gunawan Santoso, Fatimah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (593-601)
    • No of Download = 73

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    Non-contrast CT scan is a mainstay in diagnosing urolithiasis and obstruction of the urinary tract. In diagnosing urolithiasis, non-contrast CT scan needs tracking images to distinguish urolithiasis from appendicolith, phlebolith, or calcification in the iliac artery. The making process of tracking is difficult due to the small size of the ureter and isodense with the intestine and psoas muscle. CT urography is generally carried out with iodine contrast media, but in patients with contraindications to iodine, trypanophobia and lack of funds, CT urography fails. The author intended to do a study using urine as a negative contrast medium, a substitute for iodine contrast media. This study aims to identify differences in the degree of distention and density of the urinary tract between pre-diuretic and post-diuretic using 40 mg of furosemide tablet as a diuretic agent. This study type was pre-experiment with one group pretest-posttest design. Measurement of distention and the degree of density was performed on coronal image tracking of urinary tract CT urography pre and post diuretic by using Measured Distance software to determine the degree of distention and Region of Interest software to determine the density of the urinary tract. Data analysis used paired t test with a 95% significance level. The results showed that there were significant differences in the degree of distention and density of the urinary tract between pre-diuretic and post-diuretic with the p values of the degree of distention of right renal pelvis of 0.001, right ureter of <0.001, left renal pelvis of 0.002, left ureter of 0.001, and the p values of the density of right renal pelvis of <0.001, right ureter of 0.003, left renal pelvis of 0.001, left ureter of <0.001. Administration of 40 mg of furosemide tablets to CT urography patients could increase the degree of distention and reduce the density of the urinary tract.

  12. Prevalence of kinesiophobia and its correlation with physiotherapy in post-operative total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients - A cross sectional study Download Article

    Pradnya Mahajan, Jaywant Nagulkar, Milind Kahile, Shruti chavan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (602-607)
    • No of Download = 64

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    Background Kinesiophobia is a condition in which a patient has an excessive, irrational and debilitating fear of physical movement and activity resulting from a feeling of vulnerability to painful injury or re-injury. kinesiophobia had been widely assessed in various conditions including Parkinson’s disease, fibromyalgia, spinal stenosis and low back pain but its prevalence and influence on functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty remains unexplored. Aim To find out the prevalence of kinesiophobia and it’s correlation with physiotherapy in post-operative total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. Methods In this cross sectional study, 51 total knee arthoplasty patients were evaluated or assessed for kinesiophobia using Tampa scale of kinesiophobia. Also the patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A- total knee arthroplasty patients who received physiotherapy rehabilitation after total knee arthoplasty and group B- total knee arthroplasty patients who did not received physiotherapy rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty. Both the groups were evaluated and compared for the presence of kinesiophobia. Results Z test for equality of two proportion was conducted (p< 0.05). Hence there is a significant difference between two ‘p’ values. Conclusion There was presence of kinesiophobia in total knee arhtroplasty patients .There was a significant difference in the level of kinesiophobia between post- operative total knee arthroplasty patients who received physiotherapy and those who did not.

  13. Factors leading to failure of firstline anti retroviral therapy (ART); a retrospective study in indian teritiary care government settings Download Article

    Uhanjali Ammula, Aparna Veeranki, Lakshmi Chaitanya Velugu, Maneesh Kumar Reddy.M, Ramarao Nadendla
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (608-616)
    • No of Download = 65

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    Background HIV is a lenti virus that causes HIV infection in humans in which progressive failure of immune system allows life threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. So it is important to study the factors that lead to failure of first line ART. Aims and Objectives To find out the factors leading to failure of first line ART like socio-demographic factors, clinical factors, immunological factors, virological factors etc.To assess the CD4 count in subjects using first line and second line ART. To assess the viral load in subjects who failed first line ART. Methodology Retrospective cohort observational study was conducted to assess the factors leading to the failure of first line ART. HIV patients who met inclusion criteria were informed consented and included in the study and relevant data was collected in a prior designed data collection form. Results In our study we found that controls were more among 30-40 yrs age. Males and females were equally distributed in cases and controls. Widowed females were found more among cases. Illiterates were found more among cases than controls. Cases children were more HIV seropositives than controls. Cases were more in WHO stage-4 clinical staging than controls. Cases had more number of drug substitutions, drug related adverse effects, low medication adherence, more number of LFUS and hospitalisations than controls. Cases were more in number who travels more than 60 minutes and more time gap between diagnosis and time of ART initiation and cases had raised RFTS, LFTS, and lipid profile at time of treatment failure. Cases had more serious opportunistic infections than controls. Conclusion From our study we found that marital status, illiteracy, labour work, low income status, loss of follow up’s, wrong diagnosis of type of HIV virus initially that lead to the wrong treatment, positive family history of HIV, recurrent stage 3, 4 infections, more no. of drug substitutions, zidovudine, stavudine based regimens, long time gap between diagnosis and ART initiation, long travel time to ART centre, more no. of drug related problems, more no. of recurrent opportunistic infections, more no. of hospitalisations, raised RFT’s, LFT’s, Lipid profile, lower adherence levels, low CD4 counts on long term use of ART were considered as factors that lead to first line ART failure.

  14. Association of mobile phone use and day time sleepiness in students Download Article

    Dara Lavanya, Kumar Sai Sailesh, Ravikanth Manyam, Sudhakar Reddy R, Swathi Movva, Amarnath P
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (617-620)
    • No of Download = 61

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    Background Use of mobile phones extremely increased by all age groups in recent years. In fact it is very difficult to found a person who is not using a mobile phone. The usage is very high in students. This has negative impact on sleep quality as the sleep duration was drastically reduced. This further causes day time sleepiness. Objective The present study was undertaken to observe the association between the mobile phone use and day time sleepiness. Methodology 19 apparently healthy male and female postgraduate dental students were included in the study after obtaining written informed consent. Total number of hours of mobile phone usage in a day was collected from the participants. Epworth sleepiness scale was used to assess daytime sleepiness. Permission was obtained to use the questionnaire. Pearson correlation Data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to observe the correlation between the variables. Data was presented as Mean and SEM. Results The mean duration of mobile phone usage was 3.65±0.48 hours. The mean score of Epworth sleepiness scale was 10.26±0.63. The value of R is 0.4222. There was a weak positive correlation between the variables. The value of R2, the coefficient of determination, is 0.1783. Conclusion There was positive correlation between the mobile phone use and day time sleepiness. We recommend further detailed studies in this area. Also recommend to limit the use of mobile phones to increase the sleep quality and reduce day time sleepiness for a better quality of life.

  15. A review on therapeutic uses of pedalium murex Download Article

    G.Alagumanivasagam
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (621-625)
    • No of Download = 63

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    Pedalium murex is the most useful traditional medicinal plants in India.It is a small herb distributed in India, useful in development in new formulation and activities of some of this compound isolated, pharmacological studies of the extracts along with their safety and standard evaluation. The plant used by the local people as analgedsic and antipyretic activities .the trational uses of this whole plant different parts treated in urinary problems .friuts used to reproductive disorder and enhance fertility activity and diabetics.leaf decotion is used to diabetes.the phytochemical reported in this plant included quercetin, ursolic acid, aminoacid and varios fatty acids.

  16. Association of susceptibility to eating behavior with hemoglobin concentration in females Download Article

    Mounika Balivada, Kumar Sai Sailesh, Ravikanth Manyam, Sudhakar Reddy R, Swathi Movva, Amarnath P
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (626-629)
    • No of Download = 79

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    Background There is an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders in developing countries including India. Young females were reported to be at risk of eating disorders. Hematological complications including anemia was reported to occur commonly in patients suffering with eating disorders like anorexia. Objectives The present study was undertaken to observe the association between the hemoglobin concentration with susceptibility to eating disorders in young females. Methodology A total of 30 females, with in the age group of 18-24 were part of the study after obtaining the written informed consent. The hemoglobin levels were estimated by Sahli's Method. Eat-26 questionnaire was used to assess the susceptibility to eating disorders of the participants. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 20.0. Pearson Correlation coefficient was used to observe the association between the variables. Results The mean value of hemoglobin was 10.643±1.640 gm %. The mean score of Eat-26 was 12.813±7.484. The value of R is 0.0668, which indicates positive correlation between the variables. The value of R2, the coefficient of determination, is 0.0045. Conclusion There was positive correlation between susceptibility to eating disorders and the hemoglobin concentration in the females. We recommend further detailed studies in this area to understand the mechanism of the association between the variables to develop therapeutic methods for the management of disorders associated with eating behavior.

  17. Association of the mental well-being index and blood pressure in grade IV employees Download Article

    Siri Chandana Korlepara, Kumar Sai Sailesh, Ravikanth Manyam, Sudhakar Reddy R, Swathi Movva, Amarnath P
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (630-633)
    • No of Download = 60

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    Introduction The World Health Organization- Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a valid self-administered measure to assess the mental well-being of an individual. It was reported that mental well-being was associated with decrease in the risk of cardio vascular diseases. Objective The present study was undertaken to observe the Association of the mental well-being and Blood Pressure in Grade IV Employees. Methodology Thirty male and female grade IV employees were included in the study after obtaining written informed consent. The World Health Organization- Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used to assess the mental well-being. Blood pressure was recorded using digital sphygmomanometer. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to observe the association between the variables. Data was presented as mean and SEM. Results The mean age of the participants is 43.47±1.80 (Mean ± SEM). The value of R is -0.3823 for association of mental well-being and systolic blood pressure. This indicates a negative correlation, between the variables. The value of R2, the coefficient of determination, is 0.1462. The value of R is -0.2198 for association between association of mental well-being and diastolic blood pressure. This indicates a negative correlation, the relationship between the variables. The value of R2, the coefficient of determination, is 0.0483. Conclusion There was negative correlation between the mental well-being and blood pressure. We recommend further detailed studies in this area to understand the association and to plan better management methods for mental well-being of the general population.

  18. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: Report of a rare case Download Article

    Somnath Verma, JB Singh, Suman Kotwal, Anil Mahajan, Dr Rahul Khajuria, Dr Arjun Singh
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (634-638)
    • No of Download = 46

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    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a life threatening fungal infection occurring in humans, which is caused by the ubiquitous saprophytic fungi of order Mucorales. A timely diagnosis in patients with predisposing factors leading to immunosuppression is of great importance in reducing mortality and morbidity. We describe a patient presenting with typical clinical manifestations of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses and the orbit.

  19. Rugae pattern determination in health and periodontal disease Download Article

    Dr.Rutuja Pradeep Sindgi, Dr.Mona U. Shah, Dr.Yogesh Doshi, Dr. Vidhi Kevadia, Dr.Sumeha Lalge, Dr.Vishnu V. Maske
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (639-649)
    • No of Download = 48

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    Background Forensic dentistry is the dental speciality that relates & applies dental knowledge to legal problems. Rugae pattern is as unique to a human as one’s fingerprints & retains its shape throughout life. The anatomical position of the rugae inside the mouth keeps them well-protected from trauma & high temperature. Hence they serve as an effective landmark for forensic identification. Aims To find the difference in pattern of rugae between normal healthy individuals and those with periodontitis and correlation in male and female individuals. Material and Methods The present study included maxillary casts of attending patients who were divided into 2 groups: (1)75 normal patients and (2)75 patients having periodontitis. Palatal rugae pattern were then evaluated for the number and shape. Results The number of rugae was more in normal healthy individuals as compared to those with periodontitis. Circular pattern and wavy pattern was more prevalent in healthy individuals and periodontitis patients respectively. Males had more number of rugae and straight pattern was greater as compared to females who showed predominant wavy pattern. Conclusion Rugae pattern is a reliable reference landmark during forensic identification. Although we have found differences in pattern of rugae in normal healthy individuals and those with periodontitis, further studies are required to be carried out with a greater sample size to achieve significant results.

  20. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of osteoporosis among premenopausal women Download Article

    Dhanalakshmi .J, Malathi.S
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (650-653)
    • No of Download = 45

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    Bone is a living, dynamic tissue that undergoes constant remodeling throughout life. This is necessary to allow the skeleton to increase in size during growth, respond to the physical stresses placed on it and repair structural damage due to structural fatigue or fracture. This process requires range of proteins and minerals, which are absorbed from the blood stream. Osteoporosis is often known as the silent thief because bone loss occurs without symptoms; one in four women over the age of 50 has osteoporosis. One in eight men over 50 year also has the disease. However, the disease can strike at any age. More women die each year as a result of osteoporotic fractures than from breast and ovarian cancer. This quasi experimental design was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of osteoporosis among premenopausal women. 50 premenopausal women were selected by convenience sampling method at ammapalayam village. Conceptual frame work was modified Rosan's stock health belief model was adopted for the study. The data was collected by using structured interview schedule. It is inferred that majority of the pre-menopausal women who participated in the study was aged between 30-45 years, coolie, higher secondary, married and income more than 3000-5000. Pre -test shows 43(86%) had inadequate knowledge, 7(14%) had moderate knowledge and none of them had adequate knowledge. The paired‘t’ test was used to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme by comparing pre-test and post-test knowledge score. It was found that pre-test mean knowledge score was 6.72(SD=2.7) and post-test mean knowledge score was 20.64(SD=2.05) and paired ‘t’ value was 28.819*.The observed value of paired t-test is not less than the table value at (p<0.05).So the research hypothesis was accepted. It is evident that the post-test knowledge score on risk factors and prevention of osteoporosis is significantly higher than the pre-test score. There was a significant association between the pre-test knowledge score on risk factors and prevention of osteoporosis with income among premenopausal women

  21. The combination of dark chocolate and spiritual emotional freedom technique (SEFT) towards anxiety level and blood pressure on primigravida pregnancy women Download Article

    Fitriana Rakhimah, Diyah Fatmasari, Suryati Kumorowulan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (654-661)
    • No of Download = 54

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    Background The climax of anxiety level happens on third trimester when the pregnancy is on week 32-36 due to fake and real contraction. Anxiety can be reduced by giving dark chocolate as chocolate induces comfort and calmness, while SEFT makes blood stream smooth. The combination of both therapy has never been done before. The objective of this research is to analyze the effect of combination of dark chocolate and spiritual emotional freedom technique (SEFT) towards anxiety level and blood pressure on primigravida pregnancy in Bumijawa Community Health Center working area. Method The design of this research was Quasi experimental using pre and post test with control group approach. The population was 256 women on primigravida pregnancy with simple random sampling was used as sampling technique. 50 gr/day of chocolate were given everyday at 16.00 and 18 points SEFT therapy was given for 20 minutes/day. Questioner was used to measure anxiety, and sphygmomanometer and oximeter were used to measure vital sign, mann whitney,wilcoxson test and linear regression test were used on statistical analysis. Result The result of pre-post group is p = 0,001 which means there is an effect of dark chocolate consumption and SEFT therapy towards anxiety level and blood pressure on primigravida pregnancy. Then wilcoxson test was used to compare groups, resulting significance level 0,000 ≤ 0,05, which means on dark chocolate and SEFT therapy group is more effective in reducing anxiety and reducing blood pressure on primigravida pregnancy. Conclusion A combination of dark chocolate and SEFT therapy is more affecting to reduce anxiety, to reduce blood pressure compared to dark chocolate.

  22. Provision of coconut haustorium as an alternative to increase hemoglobin and ferritin levels among women of childbearing age Download Article

    Noer Desmie, Diyah Fatmasari, Suryati Kumorowulan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (662-670)
    • No of Download = 51

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    Background Anemia is a nutritional problem. Women of childbearing age can experience anemia, one of the causes is due to menstruation and also pregnancy and childbirth periods. Iron nutrition needs that cannot be met during this period will cause anemia. Coconut haustorium is an alternative to increase hemoglobin level because of its iron content. Objective To determine the effect of Coconut haustorium as an alternative to increase hemoglobin and ferritin levels among women of childbearing age in the Work Area of Bergas Community Health Center, Semarang District in 2018. Study Methods This study method used here was quasy experiment. The study design used was pretest and post test control group design. The samples were 30 women of childbearing age, who were assigned into 2 groups: 60 mg Fe with 800 mg coconut haustorium and 60 mg Fe groups. The analysis of this study was conducted with univariate and bivariate using t-test, and the data that were not normally distributed used Wilcoxon. Results After the intervention it was obtained p value = 0.002 (<0.005) which showed that there was a difference in the hemoglobin level after intervention in both groups. The mean of ferritin level in the intervention group was higher than the control group (43.07 ng/dl > 18.42 ng/dl), p value = 0.000 (<0.005) which showed that there was a difference in ferritin level after intervention in both groups. Conclusion Coconut haustorium had an effect on increasing Hb and ferritin hormone levels. Recommendation Coconut haustorium can be an alternative therapy to increase Hb and ferritin hormone levelsNoer Desmie1*, Diyah Fatmasari2*, Suryati Kumorowulan3*

  23. Utilization of dates extract to suppress stomach and duodenal signal on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatopgrapy (MRCP) Download Article

    Angga Yosainto Bequet, Diyah Fatmasari, Siti Masrochah, A. Gunawan Santoso and Leny Latifah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (671-675)
    • No of Download = 88

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    The result of the image of the biliary system on MRCP examination is often disturbed by artifacts due to signal from the stomach and duodenum. To eliminate the gastric and duodenal signal artifacts is required an intra oral negative contrast medium. There are commercial negative contrast media in the market, but this contrast media is expensive and limit of stock. Dates extract has a substance that is paramagnetic in iron material form so it can be used as a substitute for negative contrast media sold on the market. This type of research was quasi experimental with pre-test and post-test design. The research subjects used 10 samples of healthy volunteers that scanned pre and post contrast 100 ml dates extract administer. T2 HASTE Fat Saturation Thick Breath Hold Rotation was used as scanning protocol. Image score was assessed by 3 Radiologist. Statistical data were tested using Wilcoxon and Friedman Test. The result showed that there were differences suppression rate of the gastric signal between pre contrast and post contrast. There is no difference in the level of duodenal signal suppression between pre contrast and post contrast. Administration of 100 ml dates extract to MRCP patient could suppress stomach signal but not for duodenal signal.

  24. Combination of diabetic self management education (DSME) with diabetic foot exercises on blood sugar level in type II diabetes patients Download Article

    Rastia Ningsih, Diyah Fatmasari, Tri Johan Agus Yuswanto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (676-683)
    • No of Download = 63

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    Background Type II diabetes mellitus is a non-infectious disease that can cause death and have a high risk for complications involving the heart, kidneys, brain and vision and even blindness. Management of 4 pillars of type II diabetes includes education, medical nutrition therapy, physical exercise and pharmacological interventions. One of the non-pharmacological treatments is the combination of Diabetic Self Management Education (DSME) and diabetic foot exercises. Method The type of research used was the study Quasy Experimentalwith the pretest-posttest control group design. This study compiled two groups, namely the DSME combination intervention group with foot exercises and the control group with the Range of Motion (ROM). Technique Non-probability sampling with method consecutive sampling is used to get 48 respondents divided into 2 groups. Results Test results Independent t test shows p value 0.000 so that there is an effect of a combination of Diabetic Self Management Education (DSME) with foot exercises on blood sugar levels in type II diabetics between the intervention group and the control group. Conclusion The results of the study after being given treatment that the combination of DSME with diabetic foot exercises is effective in lowering blood sugar levels in type II diabetics.

  25. Torbangun (Coleus Amboinicus L) leaves extract as an alternative to increase breast milk production and prolactin hormone level among normal postpartum women (study in the work area of bergas community health center Semarang district) Download Article

    Herlina, Suharyo Hadisaputro, Kun Aristiati S
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (684-697)
    • No of Download = 71

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    Background There are many causes of failure in exclusive breastfeeding, one of them is that the feeling of insufficient breast milk production which can inhibits the breastfeeding activity. Objective This study aims to prove torbangun leaves (Coleus amboinicus Lour) extract as an alternative to increase breast milk production and prolactin hormone level among Normal Postpartum women in the work area of Bergas Community Health Center Semarang District. Methods This study was an experimental study with randomized pre-post with control group design that used consecutive sampling method. The number of sample was 32 respondents assigned equally in the control group and intervention group with 16 respondents in each group. The dependent variable in this study was breast milk production and prolactin hormone level as an intermediate variable. The independent variable in this study was torbangun leaves (coleusamboinicus L) extract with a dose of @ 500 mg taken 3x a day. Results The mean of prolactin hormone level in the intervention group after treatment was 152.69 ng/ml while in the control group was 131.06 ng/ml with p value of 0.03. The mean infant weight in the intervention group was 3229.69 grams while in the control group was 2980 grams with p value of 0.000. The mean of defecation among infants in the intervention group after treatment was 3.56 times/day whereas the mean of defecation among infants in the control group was 3.00 times/day with p value of 0.043. The mean of urination among infants in the intervention group after treatment was 9.44 times/day whereas the mean of urination among infants in the control group was 8.81 times/day with p value of 0.019. The mean of infants sleep duration in the intervention group after treatment was 11.63 hours/day whereas the mean of infants sleep duration in the control group was 10.94 hours/day with p value of 0.003. Conclusion It was evidenced that the consumption of torbangun leaves could increase breast milk production and prolactin hormone level.

  26. Formulation and characterization of paracetamol, diclofenac sodium and domperidone lozenges Download Article

    S. Rahath Fathima, V.Viswanath, C. Rajaram, M.Surekha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (698-712)
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    A combination of paracetamol, diclofenac and domperidone were formulated in the lozenge form to make available the immediate release of the drugs in fever, pain and nausea conditions. Lozenges are a form of dosage forms that deliver the drug in the oral cavity. They dissolve slowly in the mouth to release the medicament. A number of dosage forms like tablets, syrups, capsules are available for the above stated drugs but none acts locally and effectually. The aim of current investigation is to prepare the medicated lozenges of paracetamol, diclofenac and domperidone and to evaluate the same to meet the needs of increased bioavailability and reduced hepatic toxicity and gastric irritation. Lozenges were prepared by heat congealing method with varying concentrations of sugar base and polymer. Formulated lozenges were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters like hardness, weight variation, moisture content, friability and invitro dissolution. The results obtained were compared with pharmacopoieal limits. FTIR studies revealed no signs of incompatibility between the drugs and its excipients. Hardness, friability, moisture content of the prepared lozenges were found within the limits. Invitro dissolution studies showed the drug release of 90% at the end of 30 minutes. Thus, it can be concluded that medicated lozenges are suitable for large doses and immediate drug release requirements with improved bioavailability.

  27. SiddharSamanaMarutthuvam (Siddha balancing therapies) – A novel way for treating diseases Download Article

    J Jeyavenkatesh, G Senthilvel, P Saravanapandian, S Rojaramani, A Karthikeyan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (713-722)
    • No of Download = 53

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    Siddha medicine comprises of four different therapies for the enhancement of good health and prevention of diseases in which the deranged humors are not allowed the physical body and mental soul. Siddha therapies increase the acceptability of body to various therapeutic regimens like prevention of Narai(premature),Thirai(loss of sense), Pini(disease), Mooppu(ageing)using Samanamartutthuvam (balancing therapy) for bio cleansing, detoxification, rejuvenation, anti oxidation etc. Siddha Samana Marutthuvam is believed to impart radical elimination of disease causing deranged humours and maintain its equilibrium. Kaya Sutthiparigaram (Biocleansing therapy). It is superior and first line of therapy for curative and preventive medicine like Thodanivarthi, Kutrasamanam, Kutramthannilai etc. explained in Siddhar texts. Bio cleansing therapy is believed to impart radical elimination of disease causing factors and maintain the equilibrium of mukkutrams, Marundhuparigaram (Drug therapy) is the management of diseases by inducing appetite and specific drugs administration, UnavuParigaram (Diet therapy) is fasting and diet control and Karpaparigaram (Anti-aging therapy) is yogam, rejununative medicines and preventive medicine. Samanamarutthuvam plays a definite role in the management of diseases especially of neuromuscular, rheumatological and gastrointestinal origin. It also periodically utilized for the purpose of preservation, maintenance and conservation of health and the promotion of life longevity. Based on Siddha principles and own experiences, certain techniques and procedures according to Kutram (humours), Thegam (body constitution), Siru and Peru Pozhuthu (Time and Season) and Marundhu (specific drugs for therapy). It consists of main therapies, preparatory therapies and post operative follow-up therapies.

  28. Bolus silicone rubber with 2% silica composite for radiotherapy application Download Article

    Santi Yuli Astuti, Heri Sutanto, Eko Hidayanto, Gede Wiratma Jaya, Astri Suppa Supratman, and Galih Puspa Saraswati
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (723-725)
    • No of Download = 42

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    Bolus is a device in external radiotherapy to increase a surface dose using electron beam. In this research, bolus was synthesized using silicone rubber (SR) and silica composite with dimension of 12 cm x 12 cm x 0.5 cm. In bolus synthesis, the SR mass was used with amount of 73 gram and catalyst volume with amount of 4 ml. Silica composite was added with 2% from SR mass, all of sample was mixed and poured into the mold and waited until the sample was completely hard and ready to lift from the molding. Bolus was charaterized using linear accelerator (LINAC) with electron beam to obtained a percentage of surface dose (PSD) in solid phantom surface and the electron beam energy were used 5 MeV and 7 MeV. The result show that the PSD value was increased with adding silica composite with PSD value are 105.55% and 99.76% for energy 5 MeV and 7 MeV, respectively.

  29. Optimization of mAs with iterative reconstruction (IR) on dose reduction and image information (phantom study on CT scan facial bone examination) Download Article

    Widya Mufida, Leny Latifah, Jeffri Ardiyanto, Gatot Murti Wibowo, A.Gunawan Santoso
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (726-732)
    • No of Download = 50

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    The effective dose of CT scan of the facial bone is about 20.2 mGy - 42.1 mGy, the radiation dose is influenced by kV, mAs and pitch which are directly proportional to the image quality. When the dose is lowered the noise will increase, so Iterative Reconstruction (IR) is used to reduce noise and radiation doses. There is a dose reduction in the use of mAs and differences in anatomical information with IR on CT Scan Facial Bone examination. This type of research is a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with control. The study sample consisted of 5 variations of mAs in the treatment group and 1 control group sample. Measurements were carried out by univariate tests for radiation doses, differences in anatomical image information on variations of mAs with friedman test, followed by post hoc tests. Assessment of anatomical information is done quantitatively by 2 radiologists. There was a decrease in radiation dose between control and treatment groups, a control group the resulting radiation dose mGy 53.66, the lowest dose treatment group 12.56 mGy at 37.5 mAs variations, differences in anatomy image information (p value <0.05 ) treatment and control groups There was a decrease in radiation dose of routine protocols, use of mAs 37.5 on CT Scan of Facial Bone with IR to produce the lowest dose and optimal anatomical information.

  30. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity on whole plant of Vanda Tessellate (Roxb) Hook Download Article

    Pavithra T, Nirupama K V, Rajan M, Shiju L, Tamizmani T
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (733-736)
    • No of Download = 53

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    In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate phytochemical evaluation and in vivo Antidiabetic studies on the whole plant of vanda tessellate (Roxb) Hook.

  31. An audit of primary central nervous system tumor patient’s in a tertiary care hospital of north India Download Article

    Pooja Uttam Mate, Vikas Yadav, Jaspreet Kaur
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (737-743)
    • No of Download = 54

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    Background Central nervous system tumors are heterogeneous group of neoplasm having difference in prevalence according to age groups and sex. There are very few epidemiological studies about Primary central nervous system from northern India. Aim To study epidemiological patterns of Primary Central nervous system tumors. Material and Methods Retrospective Study conducted in a tertiary care Centre of North India from January 2011 to December 2016. Data regarding age, sex, histology, symptoms, imaging, location, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, recurrence if any and salvage treatment for recurrence were collected and analyzed. Results We analyzed 214 cases. Age ranged from 4years to 72 years. Males (71.9%) outnumbered females (28.03%). M: F ratio was 3.85:1.5. Neuroepithelial tumors were the most common histological finding (84%). Glioblastoma multiforme was the most common subset (33.1%), followed by anaplastic astrocytoma (13%) and diffuse infiltrating astrocytoma (13%) in neuroepithelial tumors. Medulloblastoma (6.5%) was found to be commonest tumor in pediatric age group. The most common symptom was headache (51.4%) followed by Seizures (25.2%). CECT Brain was done in 89.71%, while MRI brain was done in 10.28% patients. Frontal lobe was the most common site of involvement. Surgical procedure consisted of excision in 37.3% followed by decompression in 24.7%. Conclusion Our study helps to provide information regarding burden of disease in our area. Major limitation of our study it is institution based and may not reflect entire population. It also reflects the need to strengthen follow-up practices.

  32. A case report on recurrent infantal bronchopneumonia Download Article

    K.Sravani, Dr.P.Venkata Ramana, Y.Parimala, M.Balaji Naik, S. Mohammed Ishak
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (744-747)
    • No of Download = 55

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    Introduction Bronchopneumonia is an acute bacterial infection of terminal bronchioles characterised by purulent exudation which extends into surrounding alveoli through endobronchial route resulting in patchy consolidation. Case presentation A 1year male child weighing 7.3kgs was admitted in paediatric intensive care ward with chief complaints of fever & shortness of breath since morning, cold & cough since 2days,vomiting(1 episode) since morning & difficulty in breathing. Patient has history of similar complaints in the past 1wk back & was hospitalised for about 5days. Based on the subjective& objective evaluation the patient was diagnosed with Bronchial Pneumonia and the treatment was given accordingly. Conclusion Better assessment is necessary for implementation of safe and effective treatment for each individual patient. In order to prevent serious complications of this disease, close monitoring of the patients during treatment course including culture sensitivity tests, creating awareness, recognition of the problem and careful management of all patients is essential.

  33. Provision of cowpea leaves (Vigna Sinensis l) extract to increase the levels of prolactin hormone among postpartum women Download Article

    Asri Daniyati, Runjati, Diyah Fatmasari
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (748-755)
    • No of Download = 37

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    Background Insufficiency of breast milk production is the main reason for a mother to terminate breastfeeding early. Synthetic galactagogue is not widely known and the price is relatively expensive and it contains side effects. The content of sipinon & polyphenol compounds in cowpea leaves (Vigna Sinensis L) has a galactagogue effect that can increase breast milk production and smoothen lactation process. Objective To prove the effect of providing cowpea leaves extract on the increase in Prolactin Hormone Level among postpartum women. Methods This was a quasy experimental study with random cluster design pre test and post test control group design. The samples were 32 postpartum women who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria chosen with consecutive sampling technique. The samples were assigned into the intervention group (n=16) that was given 200 mg of cowpea leaves extract (in the form of capsule) and the control group (n=16) that was given vitamin supplements according to postpartum midwifery care standards. This study was conducted with univariate and bivariate analysis using dependent and independent t-tests and Wilcoxon test was performed for data that were not normally distributed. Results The prolactin level after the intervention obtained (p = 0.006), which means that there was a difference in prolactin levels after treatment between the intervention group and control group. Conclusion Cowpea leaves extract had an effect on increasing Prolactin Hormone Level.

  34. Personalized nutrition concept depicted in homeopathy and ayurveda Download Article

    Sudhir M Juvekar, Govind D Girase
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (756-760)
    • No of Download = 79

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    Phytochemical evaluation and nutritional formulation synergies is an emerging science. The term personalized nutrition has been established in traditional medicine, a person’s character, immunity and metabolism had been experimented and practiced with natural principles. Action of food on health and disease state needs to be understood from Individualization concept. Food plays a vital role in development of fetus up to old age health condition. Hippocrates quoted “Let Food Be Thy Medicine And Medicine Be Thy Food" - The Future of Holistic Healthcare.

  35. Homicidal stab injury over an extremely rare site: a case report Download Article

    Dr. Bedanta Sarma, Dr. Pankaj Suresh Ghormade, Dr. Lekheshwar Yadav
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (761-766)
    • No of Download = 47

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    Introduction Stab injury is a three dimensional mechanical injury, most of which is located over the chest and abdomen. Fatal stab injury of extremity especially over anterior aspect of thigh is a rare entity. It directly causes injury to the femoral vessel if the stroke can be placed exactly over its anatomical landmark. Hence, to execute such type of site specific injury, the victim or the accused must have anatomical knowledge. Few such rare incidences have been reported till now with possibility of all the manners. Case presentation Such a victim was brought to the mortuary of tertiary care centre, Dibrugarh (Assam) on 4th March 2014 with a stab injury over anterior aspect of upper thigh by an acquaintant under the influence of alcohol. Both the victim as well as the accused was illerate and farmer by occupation. The victim became unconscious in a pool of blood and was declared dead after reaching hospital. Conclusion The uniqueness of the case is that the victim chose an extremely rare site for stabbing In spite of not having anatomical knowledge. In this paper the case has been described in the light of autopsy findings.

  36. A normative study to check isokinetic testing of calf muscle strength in dominant versus non-dominant lower limb among young adults Download Article

    Mohammad Rizwan Khan, Safa Anwar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (767-772)
    • No of Download = 38

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    Background Researches for the evaluation of strength in the hip abductors, biceps brachi and quadriceps in the dominant and non-dominant limb have been done but the data for calf muscle strength has yet not been evaluated in normal adults. Purpose To form a normative data of isokinetic testing of calf muscle strength in dominant and non-dominant lower extremity in young Indian adults. Method 83 normal young collegiate males and females were tested for isokinetic peak torque production during plantar flexion on the isokinetic dynamometer. Results Strength for the dominant calf muscle was 73.17±26.44 N and for the non-dominant calf muscle was 56.65±21.27 N. The paired t test was used to analyse the data to evaluate if there is a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant calf muscle. Paired t-tests (p-value-0.000) indicated significant differences in peak torque among dominant versus non-dominant calf muscle group strength. Conclusion These results suggest that peak torque of dominant calf muscle group was more than peak torque of non-dominant calf muscle group.

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