Articles

  1. A pilot study on Habit of television viewing and its impact on weight status and behavior among school age children and assess the effectiveness video assisted teaching programme on effect of television on children to care givers Download Article

    Ninganagouda G Patil. Dr Anuradha Mhaske
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (01-10)
    • No of Download = 144

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    Background Today’s children are in a world of rapid development. Optimal mental health is essential to cope with this development and to overcome the stress related to it. Environment plays a major role in the intellectual development. Television being a part of the present environment attracts children who spend hours watching both suitable and unsuitable programmes. The television also acts as a baby sitter. Aims and objectives The study aimed at assessing television viewing habits of school age children in order to know its impact on the behavior and weight status of children and also assess the effectiveness of video assisted teaching programme on effect of television on children to care givers. Find the correlation between habit of television viewing with weight status and behavior scores and determine the association between television viewing habit, behavior and weight status scores with selected demographic variables. Materials and methods Television viewing habits and behavior of school age children and attitude of parents was assessed by rating scale, knowledge was assessed by structured knowledge questionnaire and weight status was measured by BMI by checking weight and height of school age children. Interview method was used for data collection. Results The study results shows that 65% of children had average habit of TV viewing out of 40 school age children, 60% have poor behavior, 40% children are in <50th percentile weight status, there is a mild correlation between habit of TV Viewing with weight status (0.076), mild correlation between habit of television viewing and behavior of school age children (0.08), there is a significant difference between pre test and post test knowledge scores (t=25.33, df=t39), there is a significant difference between pre test and post test attitude scores (t=15.03, df=t39), there is a significant association between number of sibling with habit of television viewing (X2=12.14, df=1), there is a significant association between age in years(X2=6.026, df=2), occupational status of father (X2=12.45, df=1), occupational status of mother (X2=6.302, df=1), and monthly family income (X2=6.148, df=2), with behavior of school age children. Conclusion The study concludes that improves the television viewing habit and behavior of school age children. Video assisted teaching programme is helpful to improve the parent’s knowledge and attitude regarding effect of television on children.

  2. Anti obesity activity and beneficial effects of methanolic extract of Desmostachya bipinnata, Canthium dicoccum, Sebestiania chaemelea in HFD and Progesterone induced obesity in rats and mice Download Article

    Juturu Mastanaiah, Dr. Milind Pande
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (11-31)
    • No of Download = 143

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    Obesity is very serious and concerned problem these days. From the first human civilization, research is going to find the drugs to treat obesity and its complications. Despite availability of many drugs in market to treat obesity, no single drug is ideal for treating all sorts of problems caused by obesity. So the research is going on finding perfect drug. Prior going to evaluating drugs on humans, it is necessary to go for preclinical evaluation and usually the rodents are suitable models. The ideal obesity models available for obesity are induced by using chemicals and high fat diet. Methanolic extract of aerial parts of Desmostachya bipinnata, Canthium dicoccum, Sebestiania chaemelea plant was studied for its Anti-obesity activity in animal experimental models. Wistar albino rats, albino mice were used to study anti-obesity activity of methanolic extract of D.bipinnata plant aerial parts at doses 200 mg/kg p.o. and 400 mg/kg p.o. against the standard orlistat 50 mg/kg p.o. in models of anti-obesity activity viz. High fat induced obesity, Progesterone induced obesity model. The induction of obesity is done by diet (20 grams/animal/day) and progesterone (subcutaneous) in High fat induced obesity, Progesterone induced obesity models respectively. The study period is 28 days for both models. In both models, the plant showed anti-obesity activity significantly through the biochemical and behavioral parameters.

  3. Simultaneous estimation of naproxen and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC Download Article

    T. Rama Mohan Reddy, D.V. R. N. Bhikshapathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (032-041)
    • No of Download = 132

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    A modified simple, selective, rapid, precise reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of naproxen and Dexamethasone Sodium. The separation was made in a HYPERSIL C18, 250 X 4.6 mm, 5µ column using Mixed Phosphate buffer (1.36 gms of potassium Dihydrogen phosphate and 0.6gms of DiPotasssium hydrogen phosphate in 1 Liter water pH 6.8±0.1): Methanol in the ratio 45: 55 at 273 nm. The mobile-phase flow rate and the sample volume injected were 1 ml/min and 20 μl, respectively. Retention time of naproxen and Dexamethasone Sodium was found to be 3.383 and 4.896 minutes respectively. The standard and sample preparation required less time and no tedious extraction were involved. A good linear relationship (naproxen r=0.999 & Dexamethasone r=0.998) was observed between the concentration range of 20-80 µg/mL. The assay of naproxen was found to be 99.84% & the assay of Dexamethasone was found to be 99.85%.From the recovery studies it was found that about 101% of drug was recovered which indicates high accuracy of the method. It is suitable for the routine analysis of naproxen and Dexamethasone in pharmaceutical dosage form. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for naproxen was found to be 3.7367μg/mL & 11.3236μg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for Dexamethasone were found to be 0.5502μg/mL &1.66736μg/mL. It was concluded that in the present developed HPLC method, the standard and sample preparation required less time and no tedious extraction were involved.

  4. Mucoguard powder: supports in the treatment of chemotherapy induced mucositis Download Article

    Govind Shukla, Nagalakshmi Yaparthy, D.Sruthi Rao, C.J. Sampath Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (42-45)
    • No of Download = 124

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    Chemotherapy – Induced oral mucositis most commonly affects anterior oral cavity where as radiation therapy (RT) potentially affects any mucosal surface exposed, from lips to cervical esophagus. Oral mucositis is a painful inflammatory and ulcerative process of the mucous membrane of the mouth. It is due to the result of chemotherapy/radiotherapy directly impacting on the ability of the epithelium for self-repair, leading to tissue atrophy and ulceration. Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis causes the mucosal lining of the mouth to atrophy and break down forming ulcers. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of Mucoguard powder as A Natural Nutrient to Promote Healing painful inflammatory and ulcerative process of the mucous membrane of the mouth in cancer patients.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of mouth dissolving sumatriptan buccinate films Download Article

    Tirunagari Rahul Swamy, K.Mohan, Dr. Naseem
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (46-62)
    • No of Download = 101

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    The aim of the study was to prepare the mouth dissolving films of sumatriptan succinate, which can useful in the acute attacks of migraine. The films were prepared by solvent casting technique. Mouth dissolving films were dissolved/disintegrated in the mouth with in a matter of few seconds without need of water. Various low viscous grades of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) E15, E5, E6 and LVP K100 used as film forming polymers. Propylene glycol, sodium saccharine and sorbitol are used as plasticizer and sweetening agents respectively. The prepared films were evaluated for thickness, content uniformity, folding endurance, invitro, in vivo disintegration time and in vitro release studies. In vitro and in vivo disintegrated studies of all films revealed that disintegrates with in 35-90 seconds. In vitro release studies showed 90% of drug release from all formulations within 15 minutes. The films were flexible at 20% of plasticizer concentration. Drug was uniformly distributed throughout the film and adequate thickness for handling. The formulation containing HPMC E5 (2.5%) showed better performance in terms of disintegration time and percent drug release profile. This finding suggests that the mouth dissolving films were likely to become one of the choices of sumatriptan succinate preparations for migraine therapy.

  6. Habit and attitude of nursing students on utilization of library in a selected Nursing college at Vijayapur Download Article

    Ninganagouda G Patil. Ms Shobha Loni
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (63-70)
    • No of Download = 155

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    Background The library is a heart of the any academic institution, colleges, university. It shapes the carrier of many students and faculties. Now a days utilization of library is minimal, the students opinion is changed towards utilization of library. Aims and objectives The study aimed at assessing the habit and attitude of nursing students regarding utilization of library. Find the correlation between habit and attitude regarding utilization of library and determine the association between habit and attitude scores with selected demographic variables. Materials and methods Habit of nursing students regarding utilization of library was assessed by rating scale, attitude was assessed by likert scale. Self administered questionnaire method was used for data collection. Results The study results shows that that 92.5% of students having average habit and 2.5% had poor habit. 87.5% students had good attitude, 12.5% had average attitude, there is a mild correlation between habit scores with attitude scores regarding utilization of library (r= 0.24), there is a significant association between class of the study with habit scores (X2=8.007, df=2), there is a significant association between class of the study with attitude scores (X2=7.61, df=2). Conclusion The study concludes that there is a need for developing good habit and attitude of nursing students towards the utilization of library. Some more study is required o generalize the findings.

  7. Pregnancy with urinary tract infection and foetal outcome in selected health care facilities in sebha, libya Download Article

    Darling .B. jiji, Bazil Alfred Benjamin
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (71-79)
    • No of Download = 90

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    Aim of the study Infections of the urinary tract (UTI) are the second most common type of infection in the body. The common problem during pregnancy was urinary tract infection. Pregnancy is one of the factors which increase the risk of UTI partly due to the pressure of gravid uterus on the ureters causing stasis of urine flow and is also attributed to the humoral and immunological changes during normal pregnancy. The aim of the study were to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women and find out the maternal and the foetal outcome among pregnancy with urinary tract infection and pregnancy without urinary tract infection women in selected hospital of Sebha , Libya. Materials and Methods Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to obtain pregnancy with urinary tract infection women and pregnancy without urinary tract infection women. A sample of 100 pregnancy with urinary tract infection women and 100 pregnancy with urinary tract infection women were selected. Data was collected using structured interview schedule. Results Findings of the study showed that 32% UTI gravid women had pre-term delivery; 35% UTI gravid women had postpartum haemorrhage and 34% UTI gravid women had delayed episiotomy wound healing. Regarding the foetal outcome 36% babies had asphyxia neonatorum; 40% babies had low birth weight; 35% prematurity and 38% babies had intra-uterine growth retardation [IUGR]. There was significant association (at p <0.05) in maternal and foetal outcome among pregnancy with urinary tract infection women and pregnancy without urinary tract infection women. Conclusion Findings of the study indicated the need to conduct frequent assessment of knowledge and risk factors of urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Awareness programmes should be conducted among the pregnant women for their promotion of health. One of the most important function of antenatal care (ANC) is to detect high risk pregnancies and to give them the necessary care. Early detection of urinary tract infection among pregnant women is important in reducing the maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Considering the importance of UTI in pregnant women which is responsible for several complications, its diagnosis and treatment are essential to maintain the health of mother and baby.

  8. A pilot study to assess nutritional status of preschool children and the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dietary habits in relation to prevention of malnutrition among mothers of preschool childre Download Article

    Deelip S Natekar. Dr Anuradha Mhaske
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (80-88)
    • No of Download = 223

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    Background Malnutrition is one of the significant factors contributing to Infant and child mortality in developing countries of the world. Nutrition during the first five years has an impact not only on growth and morbidity during childhood, but also acts as a determinant of nutritional status in adolescent and adult life. Aims and objectives The study aimed at assessing the nutritional status, pre test and post test knowledge, attitude and practice scores regarding the prevention of malnutrition among mothers of preschool children. To fine out the effectiveness of planned teaching programme regarding the prevention of malnutrition, to find the correlation between knowledge, attitude, and practice scores and to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practice scores with selected demographic variables. Materials and methods Nutritional status of preschool children was assessed by taking height and weight, knowledge of mothers was assessed by structured knowledge questionnaires, practice and attitude of mothers of pre school children was assessed by rating scale and likert scale respectively. Results The study results shows that 72.5 % of children are having normal nutritional status, 7.5% are having grade II malnutrition. There is a significant correlation between knowledge and practice scores (r =0.4066), there is a mild correlation between knowledge and attitude score (r =0.15), there is a is a mild correlation between practice and attitude scores (r =0.01). there is a significant difference between pre test and post test knowledge scores (t=7.75, df=t39), there is a significant difference between pre test and post test attitude scores (t=29.85, df=t39), there is a significant difference between pre test and post test practice scores (t=5.48, df=t39), there is no significant association between knowledge, attitude and practice scores with selected demographic variables.

  9. Assessment on role of clinical pharmacist in adverse drug reaction reporting: a questionnaire based study Download Article

    Shailaja K, Asha Anna Thomas, Ubaidulla U, Krishna Kumar D
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (89-93)
    • No of Download = 128

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    Objectives To create awareness about the existing ADR reporting system in the hospital, importance of ADR reporting and to identify the barriers of under reporting among the healthcare professionals. Methods It was a prospective, interventional study carried out in tertiary care hospital, Kanchipuram District for a period of six months from September 2011 to February 2012. A well designed closed ended questionnaire was used to assess the awareness of ADR reporting and the barriers of under reporting. Results A total of 154 questionnaires were circulated among the healthcare professionals, of whom only 125 questionnaires were filled by the healthcare professionals, the remaining 29 healthcare professionals were not willing to fill the questionnaire due to lack of time. Majority of the respondents were (59) 47% doctors, (20) 16% pharmacist and (46) 36.7% nurses and the barriers were mainly found to be lack of confidence, lack of time and fear of negative report. Conclusion The present study concluded that the educational intervention made by the clinical pharmacist regarding ADR reporting was very useful.

  10. Regenerative endodontics: rising ray of dentistry- A review Download Article

    Dr Dayanand Chole, Dr Kumari Madhu, Dr Shashank Kundoor, Dr Srinivas Bakle, Dr Neha Gandhi, Dr Rucha Deshpande, Dr Priyatam Karade
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (094-108)
    • No of Download = 152

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    When pulp tissue becomes necrotic in immature teeth, the prognosis of the teeth is compromised. Disinfection of the root presents several challenges including difficulties in cleaning and shaping of large canals with open apices, obturation of canals with open apices, and potential root fractures caused by thin and/or weakened root walls. The regeneration of immature permanent teeth following trauma could be beneficial to reduce the risk of fracture and loss of millions of teeth each year. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  11. Modified Chair Yoga in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis Knee Download Article

    Rasika panse, Purva Paranjape, Ujwal Yeole, Gaurai Gharote, Shweta Kulkarni, Pournima Pawar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (109-113)
    • No of Download = 117

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    Background Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) causes pain, functional limitation and largest cause of disability among older women and men. Indians are more prone to Knee OA due to squatting habit in daily activities. Hatha Yoga is used as treatment, up to 50% of older adults cannot participate because they feel insecure due to pain, weakness, aggravating the condition hence in this study effect of modified Chair yoga program was found out. Aim and objectives To find the effect of chair yoga in patients with osteoarthritis knee on Pain, Stiffness, Physical function using WOMAC Scale and on range of motion (ROM) using goniometric Evaluation. Materials and method In pre and post Experimental study design, 30 subjects between age group 40-60 years were included, Informed consent was taken. Subjects with OA Knee were assessed using WOMAC scale ROM was noted prior to intervention. Chair yoga was demonstrated in 1st week and then gradually progressed till 4 weeks. Post intervention based assessment was done. Results Total 12 males and 18 females were evaluated with a mean Age (54.6).The mean for Neck circumference was 19.63±1.921, Waist Hip ratio was 0.902 ± 0.0293.Data analyses was done using students paired t-test. The WOMAC score for pain (p= 0.000), stiffness (p= 0.000), Physical Fitness (p= 0.000) was statistically significant. The Range of Motion for Flexion (p= 0.000) and Extension (p= 0.000) was also statistically significant. Conclusion The study concludes that modified chair yoga was effective in reducing pain and stiffness and increasing flexibility further reducing disability in osteoarthritis knee patients.

  12. Role of innate immunity in prevention of health care associated infections in critically ill children- A prospective study Download Article

    Anusha Challa, Shantaram Baliga, Rukmini shetty, Tanvi Pai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (114-120)
    • No of Download = 101

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    Introduction Despite the advances in the critical care management, Health care associated infections (HAI) are leading to increased mortality and morbidity in Paediatric intensive care unit (PICU).Presently acquired immunity is measured routinely and not innate immune response. This study aims to measure Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α to determine innate immune response in sick children admitted to PICU and association with subsequent development of HAI. Materials and Methods A hospital based prospective and observational study was conducted wherein total of 63 children admitted to PICU requiring ventilation or indwelling central line for more than 2 days were included. Whole blood assay of TNF α levels using ELISA were measured after stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide on day 1,3 and 7 of ICU stay.Statistical analysis of the outcome variables was done by Mann Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed rank test, ROC curve analysis for relation of TNF α with HAI and mortality Results TNF α is a significant predictor for HAI on day 1 estimation (p = 0.015). ROC curve showed Day 1 TNF α levels more than 247 pg/ml and Day 3 TNF α levels less than 203pg/ml as predictors of HAI and mortality respectively. There is statistically greater reduction in TNF α between Day 3-Day 7 than Day 1-Day 3 in non survivors (p=0.027). Children who had VAP (p=0.018), HAI (p=0.025), and such reduction was also present in children with HAI caused by multi drug resistant organisms (p=0.0047), gram negative organisms (p=0.0001) and MRSA (p=0.023). This reduction was absent in children who survived and did not develop HAI. Conclusion LPS induced TNF α levels are useful to predict likelihood of development HAI and mortality in critically ill children.

  13. Stuedy and evaluation of adverse effect on Anti-Tuberculosis drugs Download Article

    Sattanathan K, Venu.V, Mathew George
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (121-126)
    • No of Download = 63

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    A bacterium called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis causes TB. There are a variety of TB strains, and some are resistant to medication. Tuberculosis is usually preventable and curable under the right conditions. The study was conducted in Tiruvalla and conducts the patient counseling on tuberculosis patient. It concluded that the patient counseling was effective to controlled the adverse effect of Anti-TB drugs and improve the health.

  14. Unusual occurrence of two pathologies in one lung - pulmonary tuberculosis and primary lung carcinoma Download Article

    Ramya.V.H, Kalyani Sri.K, Gangadharan.V
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (127-131)
    • No of Download = 65

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    Tuberculosis and lung cancer rarely coincide together but have been proven to have a definitive link and that cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. We present the case report of 58yr old male presented with left sided abdominal pain and breathlessness for past 2 months, h/o ATT taken for 4 months from February 2016 for sputum positive TB and stopped due to abdominal pain. He is chronic smoker. Respiratory system examination showed decreased breath sounds, VF, VR in left infrascapular, infraaxillary area .P/A examination - tenderness in the left hypochondrial region. Serial CXR‘s from February showed infiltrates in the upper zones which became stable lesions later with increasing left sided non homogenous opacity in the mid and lower zones. Sputum AFB– Negative. CECT Chest and Abdomen showed large mass in left lower lobe with adrenal and nodal metastasis. Bronchoscopy showed fungating mass in the left main bronchus. HPE of biopsy showed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. This case is being presented to create awareness among the clinicians of simultaneous occurrence of two different entities in a single person and proper screening for malignancy in all patients with radiological worsening even after ATT.

  15. Sticky blood syndrome Download Article

    Brahmani.Mekala, N.Sriram, Bangaru.Teja
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (132-136)
    • No of Download = 69

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    An increasingly important link between antiphospholipid antibodies and a clinical syndrome is becoming recognized worldwide. This syndrome, known as the APS or Sticky blood Syndrome, is a prothrombic disorder leading to both arterial and venous thrombosis and in pregnancy, recurrent abortion and pregnancy loss antiphospholipid syndrome is one of the most cost common acquired causes of hypercoagulability. The most common plasma protein target is beta 2 glycoprotein1. The three most important antiphospholipid antibodies are the lupus coagulant, anticardiolipin and beta 2 glycoprotein1. Unfortunately, it is a disease that is often under recognized and under diagnosed. This is probably because it can cause so many different problems many of which have other common causes. Early diagnosis is important to try to prevent serious complications.

  16. Vedanasthapak drugs and its importance in pain management Download Article

    Jyotirupa Sarmah, Bhabesh Das
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (137-143)
    • No of Download = 107

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    In Ayurveda, 50 different groups of drugs are mentioned to be used in different conditions. Among these 50 groups, Vedanasthapak group is a class of drugs which eliminates physical pain and restores the body to its normal state. In this present study some of Vedanasthapak drugs mentioned in Charak Samhita will be discussed. Also some facts regarding a clinical trial to evaluate the analgesic action of some vedanasthapak drugs will be highlighted. . A study has been carried out to evaluate the effect of Vedanasthapak drugs in pain management. To study the analgesic effect of Vedanasthapak drugs, the pain mainly concerned with musculoskeletal system i.e joint pain associated with Osteoarthritis was considered. For this study 40 patients were selected having age group 15year to 70 years. The trial drug was prepared in the form of tablet 500 mg having equal proportion of the drugs Sala(Shorea robusta Gaertn.f), Kadamba( Anthocephalus indicus A.Rich), Sirisa (Albizzia lebbeck Benth),Ashoka(Saraca indica) and given in the dose of 1 gm thrice daily. A fine powder of all these drugs in equal proportion was prepared for local application. The analgesic effect is compared with the control drug Diclofenac sodium 50 mg and Diclofenac gel for local application. The results are encouraging with fewer side effects.

  17. A study to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on needles tick injury among 2 year basic.b.sc nursing students in selected nursing college at vijyapur Download Article

    Mr Prashant B Kulakarni, Mr Ninganagouda G Patil
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (144-150)
    • No of Download = 83

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    Background Needle stick injury is so much common to the nursing students because they are unaware of its complications in future. The teaching programme may help the students to prevent the risk to get needle stick injury. Aims and objectives The study aimed at assessing the existing knowledge about needle stick injury; find the effectiveness of planned teaching programme and to determine the association between existing knowledge with selected demographic variables. Materials and methods Knowledge is assessed by structured knowledge questionnaire; data is analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics Results The study results show that 48.7% students had average knowledge and 43.% had good knowledge in pre test. In post test 48.7% had good knowledge and 51.3% had excellent knowledge. There is a significant difference between pre test and post test of knowledge scores as shown by t test (t = 3.028). There is a significant association between source of information regarding needle stick injury with pre test knowledge scores (X2=¬8.065, df=3). Conclusion The study concludes that planned teaching programme is helpful for increasing the knowledge. Some more study is required to generalize the findings regarding needle stick injury to aware the health care workers.

  18. A study on electrolyte abnormalities among ICU patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital of south india Download Article

    Saravanan Sakthivelu, Pradeep Karunagaran, Laya Mahadevan, Kannan Rajendran, Prasanna Karthik Suthakaran, Chitrambalam Pavadai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (151-155)
    • No of Download = 92

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    Background Electrolyte abnormalities are common in patients admitted to intensive care units, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Among the electrolytes sodium, potassium and bicarbonate are the common electrolytes which can produce disturbances in cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular and gastrointestinal systems. Aims and Objectives This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence of electrolyte abnormalities among patients admitted in intensive care unit of Tertiary care hospital. Materials and methods A retrospective study was done among 198 patients admitted in I.C.U of Tertiary Care Hospital during a period of 1 year from Jan 1st 2015 to Dec 31st 2015. A data containing the socio-demographic variables was prepared. Bio chemical parameters including serum sodium, potassium, bicarbonate were taken into account and the data was analyzed using SPSS 24.0 version. Results The electrolyte abnormalities are as follows: Hyponatremia 18.18%, Hypokalemia 8.58%, Hyperkalemia 3.03%. Bicarbonate levels were low in 14.14%. Among the patients with electrolyte abnormalities 12.1% were diabetic, 19.5% were hypertensive, 41.46% were both hypertensive and diabetic and 26.82% were non diabetic and non hypertensive. 63.4% of the patients had sepsis and 29.26% needed ventilator support. In our study group, 9.75% had Acute Kidney Injury, 9.75% had CKD-3, 4.87% had CKD-4 and 26.28% had CKD-5. The prevalence of stroke in our study group was 26.82% and 39% of the population had adverse lipid profile. Mortality rate was 12.2% among the study group with dyselectrolytemia. Conclusion Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte abnormality and Sepsis being the most commonly associated co-morbidity. This study emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and management of electrolyte abnormalities which is quite often missed.

  19. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: early detection using brush scrape cytology and association with various risk factors Download Article

    Dr. Archana Joshi, Aditi Wade
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (156-162)
    • No of Download = 99

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    Background The incidence of oral cancers and oral premalignant lesions is very high in India. Although biopsy followed by histopathology is considered as gold standard in diagnosis of these lesions, it may not be possible to do biopsy in all suspected cases who may be medically compromised or refuse to undergo biopsy. In such cases, brush cytology may offer an attractive alternative. Aims and Objectives This study was undertaken to know the utility of oral brush scrape cytology in detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma and correlating the oral premalignant and malignant lesions with various risk factors. Material and Methods 50 patients attending oral medicine and ENT outpatient department who exhibited oral lesions suspicious of premalignancy or malignancy were enrolled. All patients underwent oral scrapping using a toothbrush. Specimens were analyzed manually. Histopathological confirmation by biopsy was obtained wherever possible. Statistical tests were applied. Results Brush cytology technique showed a reasonable sensitivity and specificity in detecting oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Conclusion Oral brush cytology is simple, noninvasive, painless and rapid method in assessing oral premalignant and malignant lesions and useful particularly in population screening programme.

  20. Difference between A1 and A2 milk: Risk of A1 milk Download Article

    N.Sriram, Ramoju Kishore Kumar
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (163-167)
    • No of Download = 86

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    Milk is a primary source of nutrition for infants after the birth and also for human beings. Generally, milk is either from humans (women) or from cattle origin they contain various types of proteins, vitamins, minerals and so on. Components in milk show various beneficial actions in beings and some of the studies found that metabolites of it show severe adverse effects like SIDS in the case of infants, gastrointestinal problems, cardiac problems and some other life threatening effects. They are various types of milk based on some strategy, not all categories of milk do cause harm but based on genetic variation in their chain shows its cause action, ,why this change has occurred in milk among them and action of the dangerous metabolites is explained In conclusion, the role of β-casomorphin in physiological functions remains controversial and more research with improved diagnostic techniques is needed to unravel the mechanism and study physiological functions of β-casomorphin and variation of the cow breads in world.

  21. The relationship between alcohol consumption, liver enzymes and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in a general population in Punjab Download Article

    Rohit Rana, Arun Acharya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (168-172)
    • No of Download = 101

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    Background Health problems related to lifestyle and behavior are increasingly common in modern societies. Recent studies have indicated that the common liver enzymes, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are increased in alcoholics. In this study we analyzed blood sample of chronic alcoholics. Methods Alcohol consumption, smoking, coffee drinking, income, education, food habits were analyzed using detailed questionnaires. The mean age of study group was 41.95 ± 8.45 years. Results Serum AST was found to be 36.92 ± 26.35 U/L, serum ALT was found to be 53.59 ± 31.24 U/L, serum ALP was found to be 102.47 ± 29.03 U/L. and serum GGT was found to be 66.63 ± 30.96 U/L. Serum HDL-Cholesterol was found to be 44.68 ± 11.66 mg/dl. Conclusion The result showed that alcoholics had increased serum liver enzymes and decreased serum HDL- Cholesterol.

  22. A study of comparison of mean platelet volume in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals Download Article

    Rabbani.S, Ramasamy.S, Manivel.T, Gowri Shankar.A. Chitrambalam.P, Siva Subramanian.K
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (173-176)
    • No of Download = 82

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    Introduction Platelets with larger volume have more activity compared to smaller ones. Increased platelet activity was considered as one of the pathogenic mechanism for complications of diabetes. Thus Mean platelet volume (MPV) can be utilized as a marker for diabetic complications. Aim 1. To determine the difference in MPV in Diabetic and non-diabetic individuals and 2. To correlate MPV with fasting blood glucose, Post prandial blood glucose and HbA1C. Materials and methods A cross - sectional study with 150 diabetics and 150 non diabetic individuals attending Medicine op at tertiary hospital were included. Patients with anemia, malignancies and on antiplatelet were excluded from the study. All the patients underwent complete clinical examination and FBS, PPBS, HbA1C, Platelet count and MPV were estimated and the results were analyzed using SPSS 20 version Results MPV was significantly higher in diabetic individuals and MPV was higher in diabetic patients with complications than in patients without complications. MPV has no significant association with BMI, Duration of diabetes, FBS, PPBS, HbA1C. Conclusion Mean platelet volume was significantly (p <0.01) higher in diabetic patients. MPV can be used as marker for diabetic complications

  23. Clinical study of hollow viscous perforation Download Article

    Dr sreenivasa.P, Dr Santosh kumar.V and Dr Avinash gottumukkala
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (177-188)
    • No of Download = 64

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    Peritonitis due to hallow visceral perforation is commonly encountered in surgical practice it is defined as inflammation of the serosal membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and the organs contained therein. Peritonitis is often caused by introduction of an infection into the otherwise sterile peritoneal environment through perforation of bowel, introduction of a chemically irritating material, such as gastric acid from a perforated ulcer. The different modes of presentation of cases may be misleading the diagnosis of its origin. A prospective observation of 50 cases of perforation peritonitis in the Dept. of Surgery in M.N.R Medical college and hospital sangareddy during the period of October 2014 to September 2016 were to be included in the study.

  24. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Jamshid Nedumooli Pottammal, Rajendran Karuthodiyil, Kannan Rajendran, Prasanna Karthik Suthakaran, Magesh Kumar Sivanesan, Ramasamy Singaravel
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (189-195)
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    Objective To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction (TD) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a Tertiary care hospital. Study method Retrospective hospital based descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital Study population All Type 2 DM patients who attended the hospital between the periods of January 2015 to December 2015 were included. Results A total of 415 Type 2 DM patients were selected for this study, from which 59.76% (248) were females and 40.24% (167) were males. The mean age of the study sample was 51.82 years (±10.66). From the total 415 study subjects, 20(4.8%), 80(19.3%), 270(65.1%) and 45(10.8%) study subjects belonged to the age group of 20-34, 35-44, 45-64 and ≥65 years respectively. The mean duration of diabetes in the study sample was 8.23 years (±7.28). Among the thyroid dysfunction, commonest type was found to be hypothyroidism (20.14%), followed by Sub clinical hypothyroidism (5.78%). The prevalence of Primary hyperthyroidism and Sub clinical hyperthyroidism are 2.17% and 0.72% respectively. Prevalence of TD among females, 39.1 %( 97), was higher than males, 18.6 %( 31. Conclusions Screening of thyroid dysfunctions should be done in all diabetic patients especially in female diabetic population and poor diabetic control

  25. Dentistry on web- Teledentistry Download Article

    Dr. Bhavna Gupta, Dr. Nidhi Gupta, Dr. Sahil Singh Thakar, Dr. Preety Gupta, Dr. Surbhi Jindal
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (196-200)
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    The world has evolved with new technologies and one of the technology is Teledentistry. Teledentistry is a combination of telecommunication and dentistry and involves exchange of clinical information and images over remote distances for dental consultation and treatment planning.It has the ability to improve access to oral healthcare and improve its delivery by lower its costs. It has the potential to eliminate the disparities in oral health care between rural and urban communities. It plays an important role in dental health education. It is also advised that the Government should take the initiative to highlight the importance and benefits of teledentistry in the society by providing the infrastructure and basic facilities to all the states for betterment.

  26. Management of a madhu-mehajanya vrana by using udubmbhara kshira and bakuchi churna lepa – A case study Download Article

    Erappa Arvi, Srikant Kashikar, Sanjeev Yadav
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (201-203)
    • No of Download = 83

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    Prevalence of diabetes and its complications have been a burden to the society from the ancient times, in the present and will be in the future unless proper measures are taken to prevent its manifestation. In present scenario, sedentary life style, a lot of stress and over nutrition are important aetiology of diabetes, as one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Foot complication and amputations represent one of the most important among all the long-term problems of diabetes medically, socially and economically. Diabetic person has complication on many systems as on eye, renal system, cardiovascular system and Central nervous system but foot lesions are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in India, with approximately 5% of diabetics developing foot ulcers each year and 1% requiring amputation. Acharya Sushruta explained 60 measures for the management of Vrana,which shows unique therapeutic approach for management of wounds. A 55-year-old female patient was came in Shalya Tantra opd for the treatment of non healing wound with known case of Diabetes and she was treated with local application of Udubmbhara kshira and Bakuchi churna lepa for duration of one month succesfully with no any adverse effects.

  27. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia – Not otherwise specified with literature review Download Article

    Sohaila Fatima, Wajih Ahmed Siddiqui and AbdulRahman Alshehri
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (204-208)
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    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia not otherwise specified (CEL NOS) is a rare disorder with hypereosinophilia and an increased number of blood or bone marrow blasts (<20%) or an evidence of eosinophilic clonality. It constitutes a new entity in the 2008 revised World Health Organization classification (WHO). We report a case of CEL NOS in an 18 year old male who presented with extensive thromboembolism.

  28. Effectiveness of ischemic compression v/s myofascial release on myofascial trigger point of upper trapezius Download Article

    Dr.Shweta Anil Kulkarni, Miss Gayatri Nivrutti Gore, Dr.Ujwal Laskman Yeole, Dr.Gaurai Mangesh Ghrote, Dr.Rasika Balaso Panse, Dr.Pournima Ajinkya Pawar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (209-216)
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    Myofascial trigger point is a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or in the muscle fascia which is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic referred pain and motor dysfunction. The aim of this study was “Effectiveness of Ischemic compression v/s Myofascial release on myofascial trigger points of upper trapezius”. The study design was Experimental. Patients (n 30) were randomly assigned to group a (n 15) treated with myofascial release and cryotherapy and group b (n 15) treated with ischemic compression and cryotherapy and they were assessed at baseline and after 7 days. Outcome measures included pain intensity by visual analog scale and neck disability index. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test. Post treatment analysis suggests significant result among groups. The ischemic compression (group B) shows greater significant improvement in vas (p=0.0001), neck disability index (p=0.0001) compared to myofacial release (group A).The result shows that there is significant between ischemic compression and myofascial release in reducing pain of trigger point upper trapezius. Ischemic compression shows greater effectiveness as compared with Myofacial release in treatment of trigger point pain of upper trapezius.

  29. Perception and attitudes of medical students towards research and survey Download Article

    Roy Rillera Marzo, Maged Elnajeh, Shalini Ghanesan, Sundrasegaran Sagadevan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (217-229)
    • No of Download = 103

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    Background Research experience has traditionally been recognized as an important part of medical education. This research would mainly discuss about the medical students attitude towards research and surveys which comprises of perception of medical students towards research, their attitude towards research, the barriers faced by the students to conduct a research as well as their level of research guidance and the most common type of research done. Objective The aim of this paper is to determine the perception and attitudes of medical students towards research among Malaysian medical students from both public and private universities. Methods A set of questionnaire consisting of 40 close-ended questions were distributed among the targeted medical students. Through convenience sampling method, three universities from both public and private universities were chosen. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program Version 18. Results Total of 282 (94%) questionnaires were returned complete. The number of students from clinical year three, four and five were evenly distributed with 33.3%, 34.8% and 31.9% respectively. 187 students out of 282 (66.31%) students said that research is relevant in their life. The most significant attitude of students towards research is whether they were persuaded by enthusiastic mentor to participate in research. The greatest barriers towards research are lack of funding, difficulty following-up with patients and difficulty obtaining approval. Conclusion The results of the research outline the significance in perception and attitude of local university students from both public and private university. The final results disagree with our hypothesis. Overall, medical student from various universities have better positive perception and attitude towards research.

  30. Effect of rigid taping in swimmers with shoulder impingement syndrome Download Article

    Dr. Shweta Kulkarni, Akshata Changwani, Dr Ujwal Yeole, Dr Gaurai Gharote, Dr Rasika Panse, Dr Pournima Pawar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (230-237)
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    Introduction The present study is a comparative study conducted on swimmers in order to check the effect of rigid taping on swimmers with shoulder impingement syndrome. Procedure In order to test the hypothesis, the samples were collected from various swimming clubs across Pune and were then randomly divided into two groups, i.e. a control group which was given a set of core rehabilitation for shoulder and the experimental group was given rigid taping in addition to the exercise programme. For the analyses purpose paired t-test was used for assessing the effect of rigid taping on swimmers with shoulder impingement syndrome. For measuring the effectiveness of rigid taping on swimmers, the functional assessment scale, manual muscle testing and numerical pain rating scale were used. Result The study showed that swimmers with shoulder impingement syndrome when treated with core exercises along with rigid taping showed marked improvement in the score of functional assessment scale (p 0.0001) ,manual muscle testing(p 0.0035) and significant reduction in the score of numerical pain rating scale(p 0.0001), as compared to that of the control group. Conclusion The study therefore concluded that rigid taping along with an exercise programme shows better results for treating shoulder impingement syndrome in swimmers.

  31. Characteristics of pediatric blood stream infections - An analysis of bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care centre from North-East India Download Article

    Dr. Elantamilan D, Dr. Lyngdoh Wihiwot V , Dr. Khyriem Annie B, Dr. Rajbongshi, Jyotismita, Dr. Paul, Diptanu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (238-243)
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    Introduction Blood-stream infections have a major impact on the morbidity and mortality of pediatric patients in developing countries. Successful outcome of these infections relies on prompt and timely empiric therapy. The etiological agents and their susceptibility pattern change from time to time even in a same hospital, which warrants continuous surveillance of the characteristics of blood stream infections in this age group. This study was undertaken with an objective of determining the bacterial agents implicated in pediatric blood stream infections and characterization of their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods This was a hospital-based retrospective study. All the patients below the age of 18 years from whom blood culture samples were collected on the suspicion of blood-stream infections during the year 2015 were included. Consecutive, patient-specific, non-duplicate isolates were included for analysis. Patient demographics, bacteriological profile and corresponding antimicrobial sensitivity pattern were analyzed. All the analysis were done using MS-Excel 2016 and MedCalc v12.5.0. Results A total of 523 blood cultures were received and 91(17.4%) showed growth of clinically relevant microorganisms (89-monomicrobial and 2–polymicrobial). Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria constituted 47(50.53%) and 46(49.47%) respectively. Out of 93 isolates, Staphylococcus aureus(29.03%), Acinetobacter baumannii(20.43%), Klebsiella pneumoniae(10.75%), Pseudomonas spp.(6.45%) and Enterococcus spp.(6.45%) were the most common isolates. Among Staphylococcus, 8(29.62%) were MRSA. Gram-positive cocci were susceptible fully to lincosamides and glycopeptides, but higher proportion of resistance was observed for penicillins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and 3rd gen-cephalopsorins. Gram-negative bacilli exhibited siginificant resistance to almost all group of available antibiotics – penicillins(75-95%), cephalopsorins(50-87%), aminoglycosides(17-63%), fluoroquinolones (28-36%), carbapenems(23-36%) and beta-lactam/betalactamase inhibitor combinations(17-21%). Further stratifications were done for different subsets of pediatric patients viz. neonates, infants, under-5, under-10 and similar analysis was performed. Conclusion Majority of the isolates were multidrug resistant. These higher percentages necessitates proper infection control measures and warrants larger stratified studies for appropriate empiric antibiotic choice.

  32. Marcus Gunn Jaw Winking Phenomenon Download Article

    Rajamanickam CR, Kannan R, PrasannaKarthik S, Vignesh Kumar, Swathi V, Jagadeesan M
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (244-246)
    • No of Download = 69

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    Marcus Gunn Jaw Winking Phenomenon (MGJWP) is a synkinetic phenomenon which can be congenital or acquired in certain cases, presenting unilaterally or bilaterally and could also be present without ptosis. Patient usually adapts to it and surgical procedures are available for correction, if debilitating. Here we report a case of 20 year old male who was asymptomatic and was detected to have Marcus Gunn jaw winking phenomenon incidentally.

  33. A study of incidence of dry eye in critically ill patients in intensive care unit Download Article

    Kalpana Ramamoorthy, Kanmani Kothandaraman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (247-252)
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    Aim To evaluate the incidence of dry eye in critically ill patients hospitalized in the Intensive care unit. Materials and methods A Prospective case control study of 40 patients, aged between 19-55 years who were hospitalized in the Intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital for more than 7 days, of which 16 patients were ventilated and 24 patients were not ventilated. All patients were subjected to Tear secretion assessment by Schrimer’s test 1 and Ocular surface damage assessment by corneal staining using fluorescein dye . Conclusion Prevalence of dry eye was more in the older age and the Schirmer’s test value in patients with dry eye among those who were ventilated and not ventilated was 7.2+/-4.7 (p value<0.005) and 8.4+/-7.2(p value<0.005)and they were treated empirically. Conjunctival chemosis, Conjunctival hyperaemia, purulent or mucopurulent secretion, Corneal staining and Keratitis were observed in 20%, 22.5%, 12.5%, 7.5%, 5% of the patients respectively and were treated accordingly. Incidence of dry eye was 10% on 8th day and 17% on 14th day. The parameters did not show statistically significant difference according to mechanical ventilation or not. As patients in the Intensive care unit are more susceptible to develop dry eye, keratopathy, and ocular infections, they should be consulted by an ophthalmologist for early diagnosis of ocular surface disorders.

  34. Incidence of peripheral retinal degenerations in myopic patients in our institution Download Article

    Dr.P. Anuradha, Dr.K.Kanmani, Dr.Durga Devi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (253-257)
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    Objective To determine the incidence of peripheral retinal degenerations in myopic patients in our community. Design Cross sectional study Material and Methods A sample of 224 eyes from 118 myopic patients were examined as out patients at our tertiary care hospital from April 2016 to September 2016. Axial length of the eyeball was measured using A scan ultrasonography and peripheral retina examined using indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp microscopy. Results 130 (58%) eyes were found to have posterior vitreous detachment. The peripheral retina showed the following types of retinal changes and degenerations: 76(34%) eyes had pigment clumps, 63(28%) eyes had paving stone degeneration, 27(12%) eyes had snow flake degenerations, 22(10%) eyes had lattice degeneration, 11(5%) eyes had peripheral cystoids degeneration, 4(2%) eyes had white without pressure degeneration and only 45 (20%) eyes had normal peripheral retina. Conclusions Myopia is a pathological condition associated with peripheral retinal lesions and it can also predispose to various retinal disorders like retinal detachment, so it important to screen and diagnose early and treat these patients so that future complications can be minimized.

  35. Breast cancer awareness among reproductive age group women in sebha, Libya Download Article

    Darling .B. jiji, Bazil Alfred Benjamin
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (258-267)
    • No of Download = 52

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    Aim of the study Breast cancer is a global health concern and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all the cancers that affect women. In 2008, it was estimated that the prevalence of breast cancer in women aged 15 years and over in Sub-Saharan Africa is 23.5 per 100,000 women. Global statistics shows that the annual incidence of breast cancer is increasing and this is occurring more rapidly in countries with a low incidence rate of breast cancer. Literature showing a rise in breast cancer incidence rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the study were to determine the awareness of breast cancer among reproductive age group women and the prevention of breast cancer among reproductive age group women in Sebha, Libya. Materials and Methods A descriptive was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge and risk factors of breast cancer among the reproductive age group women in Sebha, Libya. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select sample and it consisted of 258 women. Data was collected using structured interview schedule. Results Findings of the study showed that, an agreement with previous studies done in other parts of the world and showed the general lack of adequate knowledge on breast cancer. Out of 258 reproductive women only 118 (45.74%) had adequate knowledge of breast cancer and majority of 122 (47.27%) reproductive age group women had moderate knowledge of breast cancer and 18 (6.25%) reproductive age group women had inadequate knowledge of breast cancer. The prevalence of knowledge about breast cancer among reproductive women were 36.86%. There was significant association between the knowledge of breast cancer and selected variables like age, literacy, occupation, income, type of family, diet habits, residence, parity, gestational age, age at menarche, interval between labour, age at marriage( at p<0.05). Conclusion Findings of the study indicated the need to conduct frequent assessment of knowledge and risk factors of breast cancer. Breast cancer mortality rate is much higher among Sub-Saharan women as compared to women in Western countries, even though the incidence rate is much higher in Western women. Apart from the fact that reproductive age women develop a more aggressive form of breast cancer, the higher mortality rate has been attributed to a general lack of public awareness of the disease, coupled with limited screening programs which often results in late diagnosis of the disease even after it has already metastasized to other organs. WHO and several international and local organizations have, in recent years, begun campaigns to increase breast cancer awareness among women throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Breast cancer occurs much earlier in women reaching a peak 10 years earlier (35-40 years) making it more important to increase breast cancer awareness at an earlier age.

  36. Diagnosis and management of deep venous thrombosis Download Article

    N.Srilakshmi, K.Kishore Naidu, P.Mahanth
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (268-276)
    • No of Download = 74

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    There is high incidence of venous thromboemoblism, comprising of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, in hospitalized patients. The need for systemic thromborophylaxis is essential, especially in patient with inherited or acquired of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Similar animal experiments could end the present exclusive reliance on statistical analysis of data from large patient cohorts to evaluate prophylactic regimes. The reduction of need for such (usually retrospective) analyses could enable rationally-based clinical trials of prophylactic methods to be conducted more rapidly, and the success of such trials would lead to decreased incidences of DVT-related mortality and morbidity. Used in treatment prophylactic or therapeutic doses of anticoagulants, may present of surgery. General or regional anaesthesia may be considered depending on the type and degree of anticoagulation as judged by investigation. The dilemma regarding the type of anaesthesia can be solved if the anaesthesiologist is aware of the pharmacokinetics of drugs affecting haemostasis. The anaesthesiologist must keep abreast with latest developments of methods and drugs used in the prevention and management of venous thromboembolism and implications in the conduct of anaesthesia.

  37. A case report on compressive myelopathy Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao Dr. K V Subrahmanyam Dr. Sandhya Rani P Dr. Smitha Madhuri, Dr. Shazia Yousof
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (277-279)
    • No of Download = 80

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    Compressive cervical myelopathy is referred as a neck condition that arises when the spinal cord becomes squeezed due to the wear-and-tear changes that occur in the spine with advancing age. Etiological factors for this include Trauma, congenital stenosis, tumor, Viral processes, degenerative processes like intervertebral disc herniation and Spondylosis. Cervical cord compressive myelopathy is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in individuals >70yrs age and prevalence is seen more in men than in women. Symptoms include pain, numbness and weakness in the neck or arms with decrease in fine motor skills. Physical therapy evaluation indicates unsteady gait, hypertonia, multi segmental weakness or sensation loss and positive babinski sign. MRI is the gold standard for diagnosis of compressive myelopathy. Physical therapy is found to be useful in preventing progression in 70% of patients with mild symptoms. Patients with poor response to conservative therapy, severe gait instability and weakness are treated with surgery. We report a case of 52 year old Female who suffered loss of grip in her left hand since her delivery. Mylogram was conducted and syringomyelia was diagnosed. Years later she developed compressive myelopathy.

  38. A case report on cystadenocarcinoma ovary Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao Dr. K V Subrahmanyam Dr. Sandhya Rani P Dr. Smitha Madhuri Ms. Nagalakshmi
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (280-282)
    • No of Download = 78

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    Cystadeno carcinoma is a malignant form of a cystadenoma and is a malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, It is the most common malignant ovarian tumor. We report the exploratory laprotomy with debulking with left ovarion cystectomy, left oopherectomy, adhesiolysis .Tissues were sent for histopathological examination which showed – mucinous papillary cysladenocarcinoma of left ovary. Her CA-125 was 49.70 u/ml. Then post operative CT scan of abdomen was done (1 month after diagnosis) – it revealed residual lesion posterior to urinary bladder.Also done with chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel 3 weekly X 6 cycles. Suspected to have reoccurence and explored, underwent exploratory laprotomy and adhesiolysis

  39. A case report on management of dilated cardiomyopathy Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao Dr. K V Subrahmanyam Dr. P. Sandhya Rani Dr. Rathna Sree D Dr. Smitha Madhuri
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (283-285)
    • No of Download = 55

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    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a progressive disease of heart muscle that is characterized by ventricular chamber enlargement and contractile dysfunction. The right ventricle may also be dilated and dysfunctional. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the third most common cause of heart failure and the most frequent reason for heart transplantation. It is a condition in which the heart's ability to pump blood is decreased because the heart's main pumping chamber, the left ventricle, is enlarged and weakened. In some cases, it prevents the heart from relaxing and filling with blood as it should. Over time, it can affect the other heart chambers. A 58 years old male patient. He was a known case of chronic heart disease (CHD) with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with 28% ejection fraction. He is a known case of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) with an old Anterior Myocardial Infarction (MI) with Coronary Artery Graft (CAG) done for – Double Vessel Disease (S/P STK- on 26 May 2013).He got admitted in Cardio-Thoracic department of Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, with complaints of breathlessness, giddiness and mild bilateral pedal edema (upto lower 1/3rd of leg) on 1 Dec 2013.He had Acute Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) for which he was on Dialysis. He presented with severe Hyperkalemia (K+ 8.4 mmol/l) and his serum creatinine was 3.0 mg/dl on admission. His X-Ray chest PA view done on 5 Dec 2013 revealed pleural effusion on right side of lungs. Patient complained of left ear tinnitus for which ENT consultation was also taken. This patient’s son a general surgeon came for a help that his father is waiting for heart transplantation .As a cadaver heart is not available and also on dialysis his general condition is grave. At this juncture he wanted to try Dr.Appa Rao’s medicine as an adjuvant. He has used three doses in alternate days and found remarkable recovery they came home. Even though they got a heart for transplant they dropped the idea of that. This patient is only on Dr. Appa Rao’s treatment and dialysis and lived comfortably .He was investigated several times for his heart his heart efficiency was found improved to a level to compensate the demand of his day to day needs. Thus Dr.Rao’s Immunotherapy may have a good role in treating Dilated Cardiomyopathies.

  40. A case report on management of chronic renal failure Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao Dr. K V Subrahmanyam Dr. P.Sandhya Rani Dr. Smitha Madhuri
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (286-290)
    • No of Download = 81

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    Chronic kidney disease may result from a primary intrinsic kidney disease, from anatomic or obstructive abnormalities, as a secondary complication of another systemic disease, or from acute kidney failure that never fully resolves. The major diseases that lead to chronic kidney failure and new cases of ESKD are diabetes, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis. Notably, diabetes mellitus (DM) now accounts for nearly 45% of new ESKD cases.3 Approximately 20% to 40% of patients with diabetes develop kidney disease.4 Patients who have received kidney transplants account for an expanding fraction of the CKD population. Although kidney transplant may cure ESKD, the transplanted kidney may eventually fail for a number of reasons, including recurrent damage from the original systemic disorder, acute or chronic rejection, and drug-related nephrotoxicity associated with the use of certain immunosuppressants (e.g., cyclosporine, tacrolimus). Kidney transplant recipients are a very complex subset of patients; however, many of the issues managed in CKD remain pertinent to this population. [11] We report one such case of chronic kidney failure in a 13 years old male who was diagnosed with CKD due to Aprot’s syndrome 6 years back. Patient developed malignant hypertension and pulmonary edema and on maintenance hemodialysis who was treated by Dr. Appa Rao with the protocol involving immunonutritive therapy.

  41. Immediate effect of ACU-TENS over non acupuncture points in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients Download Article

    SnehaKirve, Dr. SnehaGhuman, Dr. VaroonJaiswal, Dr. SnehalGhodey
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (291-297)
    • No of Download = 63

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    What is the immediate effect of Acu-TENS over non acupuncture points on reduction of dyspnoea and PEFR in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? In India COPD is 2nd most common disorder after pulmonary tuberculosis [2].Dyspnoea occurs in patients with COPD and together with energy requiring consequences of chronic infection and inflammation, leads to increased work of breathing [9]. In COPD patients, changes in lung volume and biomechanics leads to weak and ineffective expiratory manoeuvres [14]. PEFR has been used as surrogate measure of cough and huff strength.14Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is a non-invasive modality and has been widely used in clinical practice for analgesia [1,15]. Participants Thirty ambulatory patients with a mean age of 65 years with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and no previous exposure to TENS or acupuncture. Intervention Experimental group received Acu-TENS over non acupuncture (over head of the humerus bilaterally) and controlled group received placebo Acu-TENS with identical electrode placement but no electrical output despite a flashing light indicating stimulus delivery. Outcome measure Lung function was measured by Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR) while dyspnoea was measured using a shortness of breath 100mm visual analog scale. Results After 45 mins of Acu-TENS the experimental group has increased PEFR by 8.67 and decreased dyspnoea by 0.4 more than the controlled group. Conclusion Acu-TENS may be useful non invasive adjunctive intervention in the management of COPD. This study suggests that the effect of long term Acu-TENS warrants further investigation.

  42. Added effect of therapist made low cost flutter device for airway clearance in acute exacerbation of COPD Download Article

    Bhagyashree Gokhale, Dr.Varoon C. Jaiswal(PT) Dr.Sneha Ghuman(PT), Dr.Snehal Ghodey(PT)
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (298-302)
    • No of Download = 61

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    The purpose of the study is to determine the added effect of therapist made low cost flutter device for airway clearance in acute exacerbation of COPD and to identify whether there is any difference in the amount of expectorated sputum when the device is used adjuvant with foregoing treatment.30 subjects were selected with COPD as a diagnosis and having secretions and were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Control group was treated with Purse-lip breathing, percussion and huffing techniques along with standard medical protocol of the hospital. Experimental group was treated with low cost flutter device along with foregoing treatment. In the intergroup comparison the amount of expectorated sputum after 24 hours was analysed and the experimental group showed significant increase in expectorated sputum. So the present study say that therapist made low cost flutter may be effective in removing secretion from lungs and could be used as a adjuvant.

  43. A case report on Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemi Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao, Dr. K V Subrahmanyam, Dr. P.Sandhya Rani, Dr. Shazia Yousof, Smitha Madhuri
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (303-305)
    • No of Download = 75

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    Lymphoid leukemias are a group of leukemias affecting circulating lymphocytes. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease of the bone marrow in which early lymphoid precursors proliferate and replace the normal hematopoietic cells of the marrow. ALL is the most common type of leukemia in children and little is known of its origin. It presents with either symptoms relating to direct infiltration of the marrow or symptoms relating to the decreased production of normal marrow elements. Fever is one of the most common symptoms of ALL. Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia is a form of lymphoid leukemia in which too many B-cell lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the blood and bone marrow. Diagnosis of ALL generally requires Demonstration of ≥20% bone marrow lymphoblasts, Morphologic assessment of Wright/Giemsa–stained bone marrow aspirate smears, Hematoxylin and eosin stained bone marrow core biopsy and clot sections. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are the definitive diagnostic tests to confirm the diagnosis of leukemia. We report a case of, 32 years old female suffering from Pre-B ALL since 5 years. She received Dr. Appa Rao’s treatment and was completely free of any pains and symptoms.

  44. A case report on management of coronary artery disease Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao, Dr. K V Subrahmanyam, Dr. P.Sandhya Rani, Dr. Smitha Madhuri
    • Article Type: Case Report
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (306-309)
    • No of Download = 63

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    During the past decade, major improvements in the management of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) patients have reduced AMI-related mortality by 50% in developed countries. Specifically, the introduction of intensive care units in the 1960s, improvement in pharmacologic reperfusion in the 1980s, and the widespread availability of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the 1990s have markedly reduced in-hospital mortality from AMI over the past 15 years.5 Furthermore, the near-universal acceptance and prompt application of antiplatelet agents, β-adrenergic blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and statins after an AMI have contributed to the improvement in long-term survival among AMI patients. Still, these great strides cannot diminish the impact of MI. First, the number of at-risk patients (e.g., genetic predisposition, smoking, poor dietary habits, or physical inactivity) is enormous and continues to increase, especially the population of diabetics, elderly patients, and other individuals with metabolic syndrome [5, 6]. One such case with high risk and in need of Coronary Bypass Grafting (CABG) has been treated by Dr. Appa Rao’s Immunonutritive therapy and the result was beneficial to the patient. Patient was followed for a year and was found to be healthy.

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