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  1. Design and evaluation of fast dissolving buccal films containing tadalafil Download Article

    Taddese Mekonnen
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (155-163)
    • No of Download = 741

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    The present research deals with formulation of a buccal film forming polymers based fast dissolving formulation of an erectile dysfunction drug, Tadalafil. This can offer higher patient compliance and excellent effectiveness of the drug. Low viscosity grade of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E 5 and HPMC E15) were used as excipient. Due to their excellent film forming property and palatable taste. PEG 400 and Propylene glycol were used as plasticizers. Tween 80 used as solubilizing agent, aspartame and menthol, pineapple flavor used as sweetener and taste masking agent respectively. Higher concentration of HPMC E 15 was resulted in sticky film formation. Concentration of PEG 400 and propylene glycol was optimized during preliminary studies. Formulation containing HPMC E 5 (150 mg), E 15 (100 mg) and PEG 400 and Propylene glycol (20 % w/w) showed optimum performance against all other prepared formulations. The formulation was found to show a significant improvement in terms of the drug release as compared to tablet formulation. Thus, fast dissolving buccal film formulation of Tadalafil was successfully developed.

  2. Synonymous etiology antonymous morphology: Ambidexterity of cutaneous tuberculosis Download Article

    Krishna priya A, Prasad P.V.S, Kaviarasan P.K.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (164-166)
    • No of Download = 208

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    Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to draw special attention. It still meets all the criteria for priorisation of a public health disorder. The anthropozoonotic transmission of mycobacterium tuberculosis following micro trauma is well established. But combination of different types of cutaneous tuberculosis in a single patient is a rare entity. We report a case of lupus vulgaris with tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in a single patient.

  3. A randomised controlled study for comparison of primary closure of common bile duct versus t-tube drainage in case of choledocholithiasis Download Article

    MD Mokarram Ali, R K Kajla, Dharamveer Jajra
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (167-170)
    • No of Download = 238

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    The closure of common bile duct (CBD) after choledocholithotomy can be done over T-tube or primarily. The method of T-tube drainage comes with many complications and hence, nowadays, there is tendency to close CBD primarily which leads to less complications and shorter duration of stay at hospital. We conducted this study comparing primary closure of CBD with T-tube drainage following choledocholithotomy over a period of one year in 40 patients divided in two groups each of 20 i.e. Group A – primary closure and Group B- T-tube drainage . The results were compared in terms of operating time, duration of stay at hospital and complications such as leakage and wound infection. It was observed that primary closure group had less operating time, less duration of hospital stay and less complication rates as compared to T-tube group. Hence, we concluded in our study that primary closure can be recommended as safe alternative procedure after choledocholithotomy in selected patients of choledocholithiasis.

  4. Tree man syndrome-A review Download Article

    Pooja Aksal, Ghulam Mohamad Loan, N.Sriram, C.Revathi
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (171-176)
    • No of Download = 482

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    Basis for review Tree man syndrome, also known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis is recognized as an inherited disorder with widespread and persistent infection with human papilloma virus causes defect in cell-mediated immunity. In addition, there is a link with squamous cell carcinoma. A tree man syndrome is a rare disorder happening more frequently at a younger age in the general population. It is an unusual genodermatosis characterized by an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Mutations in the family of genes called EVER genes cause the tree man syndrome. Non-surgical therapies and surgical therapies are known to treat this disorder, but it is known to be lifelong disorder. Recent surgery was performed in Bangladesh which is known to be successful.

  5. Hypolipidemic effects of naringenin on phospholipase A and C during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity Download Article

    Jayachitra Jayaraman and Nalini Namasivayam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (177-183)
    • No of Download = 221

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    In this study the hypolipidemic effects of naringenin on liver fibrosis induced by exposure to ethanol are investigated in rats. Rats were divided into four groups, groups 1 and 2 received isocaloric glucose and 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); groups 3 and 4 received 20% ethanol equivalent to 6g/kg body weight every day for the total experimental period of 60 days. In addition, groups 2 and 4 were supplemented with naringenin (50mg/kg p.o) every day for the last 30 days of the experiment. The results showed significantly elevated levels/activities/expression of serum aspartate and alanine transaminases, plasma phospholipid, phospholipase A and C and decreased levels of tissue phospholipid in ethanol fed rats as compared to those of the controls. Supplementation with naringenin for the last 30 days of the experiment to ethanol-fed rats, significantly decreased the activities/expression of serum aspartate and alanine transaminases, plasma phospholipid, phospholipase A and C and decreased levels of tissue phospholipid in the liver as compared to the control rats. These findings suggest that naringenin has a protective effect on liver injury and can inhibit liver fibrosis induced by ethanol in rats. Naringenin improved the histological changes of fibrosis. The mechanism, possibly involves its hypolipidemic activity associated with its effect on inhibiting plasma phospholipid, phospholipase A and C and decreased levels of tissue phospholipid and suppressing the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

  6. Low back injuries in fast bowlers: A literature review Download Article

    Akhil Mathew, Subash chandra Rai and Dr. Dhanesh Kumar K U
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (184-195)
    • No of Download = 403

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    Background Professional fast bowlers have been found to be at higher risk of developing low back injuries than other form of cricket players. The most common injuries related to bowling are overuse injuries to the back. Objective The aim of this report is to review the sources that describe biomechanical perspective of low back injuries and various preventive or countermeasures in fast bowling. Method A thorough literature review was done to complete the report from following sources: Pubmed, Pedro, Cochrane, Science direct and Cinahl Conclusion From the review it is evident that there is a need to continue with injury surveillance, identifying preventive strategies as well as a need for future research to be done to evaluate the efficacy of intervention strategies in order to reduce the risk of back injuries in fast bowlers.

  7. Effects of naringenin on fibrotic markers (MMPs and TIMP1) during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity Download Article

    Jayachitra Jayaraman and Nalini Namasivayam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (196-204)
    • No of Download = 208

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    To investigate the antifibrotic effects of naringenin on liver fibrosis induced on exposure to ethanol in rats. Rats were divided into four groups, groups 1 and 2 received isocaloric glucose and 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC); groups 3 and 4 received 20% ethanol equivalent to 6g/kg body weight every day for the total experimental period of 60 days. In addition, groups 2 and 4 were supplemented with naringenin (50mg/kg p.o) every day for the last 30 days of the experiment. The results showed significantly elevated levels/activities/expression of serum aspartate and alanine transaminases, matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metallo proteinases (TIMPs) in ethanol fed rats as compared to those of the control. Ethanol administration caused liver damage and fibrosis as evidenced by liver histology and various fibrogenic factors. Supplementation with naringenin for the last 30 days of the experiment to ethanol-fed rats significantly decreased the activities/expression of serum aspartate and alanine transaminases, MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1 in the liver as compared to the control rats. These findings suggest that naringenin has protective effect on liver injury and can inhibit liver fibrosis induced by ethanol in rats. Naringenin improved the histological changes of fibrosis. The mechanism possibly involves its anti-inflammatory activity associated with its effect on inhibiting MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1and suppressing the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

  8. A rare case of simultaneous giant gastric and duodenal perforation managed by non-classical method- Mikulicz pyloroplasty Download Article

    Dr. Vijay Haralgat Seetharamaiah, Dr. Mohammed Salim, Dr. Sunil Dangi Chowdhary
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (205-208)
    • No of Download = 307

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    Acid peptic disease (APD) is highly prevalent disease in modern society, with an incidence rate of 5-15%. [1] APD has multiple complications, among them Perforation of the ulcer is the most lethal one, having mortality rate up to 15%. Peptic perforation may be the initial presentation of APD. Perforation of ulcer can be seen in 2-10% of APD patients. [2] Patient’s presenting with simultaneous duodenal and giant gastric perforation is rare entity. [4] Most of these cases are dealt by classical surgical approaches. In this case, an unstable chronic liver disease (CLD) patient with portal hypertension (PHT) presented with giant pyloric perforation and duodenal perforation simultaneously associated with H.pylori infection. Patient was treated with non-classical approach, wherein two perforations were converted into single perforation and closed by Mikulicz Pyloroplasty (MP).

  9. Antibacterial activity of Andrographis Paniculata L. Download Article

    Dr. J.Jayachitra, Dr. R. Subashini, G. Kavitha and A. Ajitha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (209-215)
    • No of Download = 333

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    Objectives Ethanolic extract and chloroformic extracts of Andrographis Paniculata leaves was investigated for antibacterial activities. Methods The well diffusion method was followed for antibacterial assay.Antibacterial activity of the leaves extract using well diffusion method according to Bauer et al.,.(1996). In this disc was prepared by using whatmann No.1 filter paper. Then, the filter paper disc of 5mm diameter were sterilized and soaked in the different concentration of plant extract. Results The antibacterial activity of Andrographis Paniculata was tested against 4 species of bacteria, viz, Staphyloccus, Streptococcus, Bacillus pseudomonas and E.Coli. Conclusion Aqueous ethanolic extract and chloroformic extracts of leaves was screened for their antibacterial potential. The zone of inhibition was seen to be largest when chloroform extract was used.

  10. Effect of low level laser therapy in acute low back pain with radiculopathy: A single blinded randomized control study Download Article

    Akhil Mathew, Dr. Dhanesh Kumar K U, Dr. Ajith S and Subash Chandra Rai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (216-225)
    • No of Download = 282

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    Background The lifetime prevalence of low back pain is reported as over 70% in industrialized countries. Peak prevalence occurs between ages 35 and 55. There is increasing evidence that inflammation in association with root compression is the main pathological factor of radiculopathy. LLLT can be advantageous because its therapeutic window for anti-inflammatory actions overlaps with its ability to promote tissue repair in a dose dependent manner. Objective The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of low level laser therapy and conventional therapy in acute low back pain with radiculopathy. Methodology Study proceeded after ethical clearance from the central ethical committee of Nitte University. The subjects diagnosed with acute low back pain with radiculopathy by an orthopaedician fulfilling the inclusion criteria will be included in the study. An informed written consent will be collected from all the subjects included in the study. A total of 100 patients will be included in the study and they will be randomly assigned into two groups using convenience sampling. One group will receive conventional therapy and the other group LLLT. Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, Modified Schober’s test will be measured pre and post following treatment for a duration of 5 days. Results Both groups have shown significant improvement but low level laser therapy group have shown more significant results (p value <0.001) compared to control group managed with conventional therapy. Conclusion Based on the above results we conclude that low level laser therapy is having a remarkable effect on pain control and tissue repair in acute back pain with radiculopathy. Further research in dosiometry and also with large sample seize is recommended.

  11. Effects of naringenin on TGF-β during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity Download Article

    Jayachitra Jayaraman and Nalini Namasivayam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (226-232)
    • No of Download = 390

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    The hypolipidemic effects of naringenin on liver fibrosis induced by exposure to ethanol in rats are investigated. Rats were divided into four groups, groups 1 and 2 received isocaloric glucose and 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); groups 3 and 4 received 20% ethanol equivalent to 6g/kg body weight every day for the total experimental period of 60 days. In addition, groups 2 and 4 were supplemented with naringenin (50mg/kg p.o) every day for the last 30 days of the experiment. The results showed significantly elevated levels/activities/expression of serum aspartate and alanine transaminases in ethanol fed rats as compared to those of the control. Ethanol fed rats also exhibited increased staining for the presence of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) protein adducts in the liver. Supplementation with naringenin for the last 30 days of the experiment to ethanol-fed rats significantly decreased the activities/expression of serum aspartate and alanine transaminases and also decreased staining for the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF-β) protein adducts in the liver as compared to the control rats. These findings suggest that naringenin has a protective effect on liver injury and can inhibit liver fibrosis induced by ethanol in rats. Naringenin improved the histological changes of fibrosis. The mechanism, possibly involves its effect on inhibiting TGF- and suppressing the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

  12. The prescribing pattern of drugs in pediatric patients of a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Kottala Sravanthi, Pavan C, Sudhakar Y, Biradar S M, Venu Madhuri. R, N. Bhasker Babu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (233-241)
    • No of Download = 333

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    Background & Objective Worldwide infants and children represent a higher proportion (28%) of the population. The rational use of medications for infants and children is a worldwide concern, and is therefore prominent among health care professionals. The present study was carried out to evaluate the current drug usage pattern in pediatric patients of teaching hospital in south India. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out on 100 subjects executed for six months. Data were collected from patient case sheet and analyzed for the WHO indicators and drug interactions. Results: The gender distribution of the 100 evaluated patients in the study were; 45 female and 55 male. The mean age was found to be 4 years (range: 0–12). Average hospital stay of study population was 5 days. The distribution of various diseases in study population were CNS (5), anemia (13), respiratory system (15), infectious diseases (57), fever (10) and other diseases (9). Most of the study population diagnosed with infectious diseases. The study population most frequently prescribed with antibiotics (50.7%). Ceftriaxone and paracetamol were the leading prescribing drugs. Average number of drugs per prescription was 3.9. The drugs prescribed by generic name were 18.7 %. The average consultation time was found to be 6.2 minutes. The average numbers of parental, antimicrobial and total drugs costs per prescription were 165,176 and 201(INR) respectively. The study population contains 12 minor and 32 moderate drug interactions. Conclusions: Our study highlighted some rational prescribing practices a lower dispensing time and higher consulting time resulting in knowledge of correct doses and hence of improved compliance. Some areas of concern were polypharmacy, higher antimicrobials cost, higher rate of antibiotics prescribing, prescribing by brand names and no hospital formulary.

  13. An overview on dietary supplements during pregnancy: A review Download Article

    Shail, Dwivedi Manjari, Kumar Neeraj
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (242-248)
    • No of Download = 311

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    A woman has to go through nine month long journey and faces many ups and down in this journey. In many developing countries, complication of pregnancy and child birth are the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age.Ayurveda and Morden system of health care provider understands food and nutrition in a different way than what is advocated by the modern science of nutrition. Only when adequate balance diet understanding becomes part of the common man, that it will also become part of their everyday living. Dietary measures for special situations like pregnancy or postpartum are only extensions of this science of nutrition. The average regular diet (with some modifications with view as to what is good for her and what is not) is adequate for the average expecting mother. She should be more concerned with the quantity and quality of what she eats. She should supply her body with good nourishing diet and at the same time eat foods that will build her baby's body tissues.

  14. Antioxidant activity of Enicostemma axillare L., on fructose induced heart disease in swiss albino rats Download Article

    J.Jayachitra, R. Subashini, J. Revathi and A.Ajitha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (249-255)
    • No of Download = 368

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    The antioxidant effect of the ethanolic extract of Enicostemma axillare, an indigenous ayurvedic medicinal plant used in India, was studied in rats with fructose-induced cardiac diseases. Rats were divided into four groups: Groups 1 received Normal feed with water. Groups 2 received Fructose treated (The oral administration of 10g of fructose/ 100ml of distilledv water/kg body weight for 21 days), Groups 3 received Fructose and low dose of Enicostemma axillare (150mg/ kg B.wt.)].Groups 4 received Fructose and high dose of Enicostemma axillare treated [oral administration of fructose (10g/ 100ml distilled /kg b. wt) and Enicostemma axillare (250mg/ kg B.wt.)]. For 21 days. The results showed significantly elevated level of serum and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and significantly lowered activities/levels of antioxidants such as, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione in fructose -treated rats compared with control rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Enicostemma axillare to rats with fructose -induced liver injury significantly decreased the levels of serum and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and significantly elevated the activities of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione in the tissues compared with unsupplemented fructose -treated rats. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of Enicostemma axillare has a modulatory effect on fructose -induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  15. Effect of cyclophosphamide in histological features of cerebellum in chick embryo Download Article

    Shabana Sultana, M.A.Doshi, N.Jayasree, Mrudula Chandrupatla, Aruna Jyothi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (256-259)
    • No of Download = 310

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    Cyclophosphamide is an Alkylating Agent and it comes under the category of Nitrogen Mustards, which is used commonly in the treatment different types of Cancers or Carcinomas or Neoplasms (Goodman and Gilman 9th edition 1996).It was synthesized and Introduced in the year 1854 and its properties were elaborately observed and described by 1887. Cyclophosphamide is administered in the treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemias, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin’s, Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma, Neuroblastoma, Breast Cancer etc. It is also a potent Immuno Suppressive Drug. It has been used for the Control of Organ Rejection after Transplantation, Wegner’s Granulamatosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Nephrotic Syndrome in Children. In the present study fertilized eggs were administered with Cyclophosphamide and histological features of cerebellum were studied after 20 days. Cyclophosphamide cytotoxicity results in reduction of multiplication of cell activity associated with malformations and embryonic death. Injection of the drug causes decrease of mitotic activity which produces deformities.

  16. Hypocholesterolemic effect of Enicostemma axillare L., on fructose induced Heart disease in swiss albino rats Download Article

    J.Jayachitra, R. Subashini, J. Revathi and A.Ajitha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (260-264)
    • No of Download = 378

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    The antioxidant effect of the ethanolic extract of Enicostemma axillare, an indigenous ayurvedic medicinal plant used in India, was studied in rats with fructose-induced cardiac diseases. Rats were divided into four groups: Groups 1 received Normal feed with water. Groups 2 received Fructose treated (The oral administration of 10g of fructose/ 100ml of distilledv water/kg body weight for 21 days), Groups 3 received Fructose and low dose of Enicostemma axillare (150mg/ kg B.wt.)].Groups 4 received Fructose and high dose of Enicostemma axillare treated [oral administration of fructose (10g/ 100ml distilled /kg b. wt) and Enicostemma axillare (250mg/ kg B.wt.)]. For 21 days. The results showed significantly elevated level of serum and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and significantly lowered activities/levels of antioxidants such as, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione in fructose -treated rats compared with control rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Enicostemma axillare to rats with fructose -induced liver injury significantly decreased the levels of serum and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and significantly elevated the activities of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione in the tissues compared with unsupplemented fructose -treated rats. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of Enicostemma axillare has a modulatory effect on fructose -induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  17. Epidemiological study of burns in a government tertiary hospital of North Western Rajasthan-Bikaner Download Article

    Vijay haralgat seetharamaiah, Mohammed Salim, Avinash mahavar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (265-274)
    • No of Download = 359

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    Back ground Burns is a one of the major form of trauma faced by the surgeon. A variable numbers of demographic factors influence the burn in a particular region, thus demanding for the epidemiological study of burns. Aims and objectives To know the epidemiological, demographical and socio economic factors influencing the burn cases in the North Western part of Rajasthan and to know the pattern of burn in this area. Material and methodology A prospective study of all burn patients admitted as per admission criteria in the PBM hospital during the period of one year. (2015-2016). we studied a total of 177 patients with burns. Admission criteria were: 1) Patients who had sustained burn>15% total body surface area, second degree burn. 2) Third degree burns. 3) Burns sustained from chemical or electric burn. 4) Facial burns. 5) Inhalation burns. Results Young, aged people between 20-40 years of age accounted for the majority 64.96% cases. Higher incidence was seen in rural population (70.05%), married people (81.92%), illiteracy (39.54%) and low socioeconomic status (44.63%). Flame burns were the most frequent form of burns (81.92%); followed by electrical burn (10.73%). Incidence of the burn was highest in residence (kitchen) accounting for 86.44% and an overall mortality rate of 45.19% was noted (80 cases out of 177). Outcome of the patient was directly proportional to the TBSA of burn. Extremes of age; older age and younger group had a higher mortality rate.

  18. Antioxidant and Wound Healing Property of Polyherbal Ointment of Nepalese Medicinal Plants Download Article

    Rajendra Gyawali, Anjana Hengaju, Pramita Thapa Magar, Pratibha Khadka, Rakesh Sah, Samjhana Bhandari, Sulav Adhikari, Gunjan Subedi, Ashwinee Kumar Shrestha and Tirtha Maiya Shrestha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (275-283)
    • No of Download = 305

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    Methanolic extracts of Aloe vera, Bauhinia variegate, Centella asiatica, Cuscuta reflex, Chromalaena adarata, Cynodon dactlon, Myrica esculenta, Nyctanthes arbor tritis, Psidium guajava, Rhododendron arboretum, Ficus lacorpysus, Pyrus pashia, Bombax ceiba were evaluated for their total tannins and total phenolics. Among them, Bauhinia variegata, Myrica esculenta, Rhododendron arboreum, Pyrus pashia and Psidium guajava were found to have highest tannin content. These plants were further subjected to evaluate the antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. Bauhinia variegata, Rhododendron arboreum, and Myrica esculenta were formulated into 10% w/w ointment in the ratio of 1:1:2 respectively. In excision wound model, 9 days observation showed that wound was totally healed in herbal ointment treated rats while 2.72%, 4.5%, and 5.73% wound area was found remaining in Framycetin treated, blank and control group of rats, respectively. These traditional medicinal plants showed the significant wound healing activity in animal models, which justifies their use in traditional practice in Nepal.

  19. Study of pedicle morphometry of the lumbar vertebrae Download Article

    Sunny Yadav, Dhiraj Saxena, Arpita Gupta, Rachna Agrawal
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (284-288)
    • No of Download = 331

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    The growing need of various orthopaedic procedures to vertebral column like posterior spinal instrumentation and transpedicular screw fixation of the spine demands accurate knowledge of measurements of the various parts of vertebra. Morphometric study of pedicles of spine of lumbar region is thus relevant and critical for proper placement of the transpedicular screw to avoid inadvertent penetration of pedicular wall. The present study was undertaken with the view to study the height and width of pedicles of 90 dry lumbar vertebras. Height of various lumbar pedicles is 14.5, 15.0, 15.2, 14.8, and 13.7 (mean of left and right side up to one decimal point) from L1 to L5. It increases from L1 to L3 and then decreases from L4 to L5. Width of various lumbar pedicles is 8.9, 9.8, 10.6, 15.1, and 18.6 (mean of left and right side up to one decimal point) from L1 to L5. The width of lumbar pedicle increases continuously from L1 to L5.

  20. Effects of Chronic Prenatal Restraint Stress on Motor Coordination in Post weaned Male and Female Wistar Rats Download Article

    Saju B Cherian, Bairy KL, Muddanna S Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (289-294)
    • No of Download = 268

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    Background Maternal stress has a variety of deleterious effects on developing fetus that manifests into adulthood. Aims The present study was designed with the view to examine the gender- specific effects of chronic maternal stress on sensorimotor coordination following prenatal stress in rats. Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to restraint stress from embryonic day 11 till delivery. Male and female rat pups on the 33rd day of postnatal life were subjected to rotarod test for motor coordination and balance. Results It was observed that prenatal stress caused significant effects in stressed males when compared to that of control and did not show any effect in stressed females. Conclusion These data reinforce the view that prenatal stress affects motor coordination in a sex-specific manner and the diminished effect seen in females could be due to the estrogen- mediated neuroprotection on hippocampal function.

  21. Morbidity pattern among patients attending geriatric clinic of a tertiary care institution in Chandigarh, Northern India Download Article

    Munesh Kumar Sharma, Navpreet, Anupama Dhiman, Naveen Krishan Goel, Dinesh Walia
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (295.301)
    • No of Download = 205

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    Background and aims The increase in geriatric population has led to an increase in elderly surviving with morbidities. The present study was conducted with objectives (1) To find out the magnitude and pattern of diseases among cases reporting in geriatric clinic at a tertiary care institution, and (2) To find out seasonal differences in reporting of geriatric cases, if any. Methods & results Secondary data from patient registers who attended Geriatric clinic at tertiary care institution in Chandigarh between March 2014 to February 2015 was analysed. Total of 16 046 elderly reported to geriatric clinic with almost equal proportions according to gender (male, 51.9% and female, 48.1%), and majority from age group 60-69 years (65.1%). The proportions of patients reported during different seasons were 34.2%, 33.9% and 31.8% during rainy, summer, and winter, respectively. Seasonal variations according to gender were not found to be statistically significant (p=0.07) but this found to be statistically significant according to age (p=0.00). Overall, hypertension was the leading morbidity reported during study period i.e. 41.4%. Conclusion The burden of non-communicable diseases was found to be more among elderly. Early diagnosis and regular treatment can cut down the prevalence of these diseases. There require optimum mix of preventive, promotive and curative services for care of geriatric population.

  22. A review on study of katphala (Myrica Esculenta) W. S. R. to Tamaka shvasa (Bronchial Asthma) Download Article

    Gulhane Harshad, Bhople Sunanda, Mahakal Nilesh, Girde Samir
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (302-309)
    • No of Download = 197

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    At present many chronic recurrent airway disorders are increasingly seen all over the glob. Ayurveda has described Tamaka Shvasa (Bronchial asthma) as one of such disorders. Bronchial asthma is allergic hyper responsivness of trecheo bronchial tree initiated by immunological mechanism and Katphal (Myrica esculenta, family- myricaceae) is known Ayurvedic traditionally medicine possess anti asthmatic property. Asthma affect more than 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Plants are always an exemplary source of drugs; in fact many of the currently available drugs were derived either directly or indirectly from them. Many experimental research proven the efficacy of Myrica esculenta as anti-asthmatic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory properties. Myrica esculenta are widely used for preparation of Ayurvedic formulation like churnas, Asav-arishta, oils, tablets etc. The bark constitute gallic acid, myricanol, myricanone, epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, two prodelphinidin dimmers [epigallocatechin-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate and 3- O galloylepigallocatechin-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin3-O-gallate], hydrolysable tannin castalagin. Prodelphinidin units with 2,3-cisconfiguration having average of 5000 mean molecular weight (Mr) were found in the higher mean molecular weight (Mr) fractions. Theterminal unit of the polymer has epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, theextender units were also known to have galloyl group at C-327.Gallic acid, lupeol, oleanolic acid and stigmasterol were evaluated by HPTLC in bark extract. Present study review information about use of myrica esculenta in bronchial asthma.

  23. Correlation and comparison between pelvic position and lumbar lordosis in pregnant women Download Article

    Shivani Chowdhury Salian, Soundara Sandiya Pandiyan, Sujata Yardi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (310-318)
    • No of Download = 279

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    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine if posture and back pain changed from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy and whether there was a relationship between the two. Aim: To measure, correlate and compare lumbar lordosis with pelvic posture in pregnant women of all three trimesters. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted comprising a total of 160 subjects, with an equal number of subjects (n=40) from 1st trimester, 2nd trimester, 3rd trimester and a control group which included non pregnant healthy individuals. Group 1= Ladies in the First Trimester, Group 2= Ladies in the Second Trimester, Group 3= Ladies in the Third Trimester and Group 4= Age and BMI matched women. Each subject from each group had their pelvic inclination angle, lumbar lordosis angle, height and weight for calculating BMI, and hip circumference measured in relaxed standing posture. Results Bonferroni test was used to compare the variables in all the groups of the experiment. A significant difference at p<0.05 was obtained between pelvic inclination angle measured in the pregnant ladies from all trimesters. A non-significant difference was obtained between Women in the first trimester and control group. Significant difference at p<0.05 was obtained in the lumbar lordosis angle measured in the pregnant ladies when mothers in the 1st Trimester were compared with mothers in the 2nd Trimester and 3rd Trimester. However there was no significant difference in the lumbar lordosis angle values in between 2nd Trimester mothers & 3rd Trimester and between 1st Trimester and control group. There was no correlation between lumbar lordosis and pelvic inclination measured in the experimental group. Also no correlation was established between BMI and waist hip ratio when associated with lumbar lordosis and pelvic inclination. Conclusion It is made evident that measurement of Lumbar Lordosis angle does not vary significantly in the pregnant women throughout their pregnancy. On the contrary, there was a gradual increase in the measurement of Pelvic inclination angle that was seen from the first through the third trimesters. Also, there was no association obtained between the two measurements denoting the pelvic posture and the lumbar spine posture.

  24. Pulmonary function test in petrol pump workers and garage workers: A long drawn peril Download Article

    Sheetal Salvi, Neelam Bala Prasad and Nikhil Bhandari
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (319-323)
    • No of Download = 338

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    A cross-sectional study on occupational exposure to petrol vapours, diesel and automobile exhaust on pulmonary function tests was conducted. Parameters like FEV1, FVC and FEF25-75% of petrol pump workers and garage workers were compared with healthy subjects and analyzed .90 subjects (30 controls and 60 workers from above two groups) with median age 35 years. A significant difference was observed in study group when compared with control group. The petrol pump workers were found to have significantly low (p<0.001) levels of FVC and FEF25-75% as compared to controls as well as with the garage workers. These working sector groups are definitely at risk of developing respiratory disease due to exposure of fuel vapours and air pollutants. Therefore it points out that there is more of restrictive disease and small airway disease.

  25. Correlates of antenatal care services utilization at health centres in Chandigarh Tricity, India Download Article

    Anupama Dhiman, Naveen Krishan Goel, Dinesh Walia, Abhiruchi Galhotra, Navpreet
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (324-331)
    • No of Download = 253

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    Background and Aims Adequate and good quality antenatal care (ANC) can ensure a favourable pregnancy outcome, but the coverage of ANC in India remains inadequate. To assess the correlates of antenatal care services utilization at various health centres in Chandigarh Tricity. Method and Results A cross sectional study was done from April 2012 to September 2013 at randomly selected 18 health centres in Tricity of Chandigarh, Northern India with an objective to assess the correlates of antenatal care services utilization at health centres. The data was obtained from 345 pregnant women using interview technique, and supplemented by record checking. Mean age (± S.D.) of participants was 24.51 (± 3.64) years. Majority of participants registered during first trimester (71.3%), received Iron-Folic acid tablets (84.6%) and Injection Tetanus Toxoid (96.0%). Maximum numbers of participants (78.0%) were anaemic. Conclusion The use of IFA tablets could be increased by their regular supply and counselling of pregnant women. There should be provision for improvement of competence, confidence & motivation of health workers to ensure full utilization of Maternal & Child Health services.

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