Articles

  1. Trend of obesity, socio-economic status and nutrient intake of overweight and obese working women Download Article

    Upasana, Archana Chakravarty, Kailash Kumar Gupta, Yamini Bhusan Tripathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (01-09)
    • No of Download = 562

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    Obesity is an important public health problem in today’s era. Obesity occurs as a result of positive energy balance in the body. One of the reason for the obesity is the nutrition transition which is based on socio – economic conditions (such as education, occupation and per capita income) and sometimes in individual social background. The objective of the present study is to assess the trend of obesity in among different socio – economic status (SES) of overweight and obese working women and their nutrient intake. For this, cross – sectional study was conducted on 200 working women (respondents) and the respondents were selected by purposive sampling technique. Pretested and predesigned questionnaire – cum – interview schedule was used for data collection. Anthropometric measurements were taken by standard technique (Jelliffe, 1966). The values of percent body fat (PBF) and visceral fat (VF) were taken by Omron Body Composition Monitor; HBF 212. The result revealed that 85.7 percent of the overweight respondents belong to upper lower SES category and among obese grade I respondents 28 percent of the respondents come in upper middle SES category. Significant association was observed between health risk parameters like height (F= 16.55, P < 0.01), weight (F= 17.33, P < 0.01), BMI (F= 3.97, P < 0.01) and PBF (F= 4.32, P < 0.01) with different categories of SES. In context of dietary intake significant association of SES found with fat (F= 5.67, P < 0.001), calcium (F= 10.43, P < 0.001) and total fibre (F = 3.14, P < 0.05). Correlation between SES, health related risk parameters and nutrient intake was observed from the value of Pearson Correlation coefficient (r). In context of health risk parameters the SES shows positive correlation with height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and VF. In the arena of nutrient intake, SES shows positive correlation with protein, fat, calcium and negative correlation with total fibre. Therefore, it may be concluded that not only SES play role in adiposity but it may be due to sedentary lifestyle, changing eating pattern, lack of physical activity, hormonal imbalance, genetics factors etc be the reason for their overweight and obesity.

  2. In-vitro quality evaluation of different products of amoxicillin- clavulanate potassium tablets Download Article

    Taddese Mekonnen, Wubayehu Kahaliw, Jeevanandham Somasundaram
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (10-16)
    • No of Download = 491

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    Amoxicillin- clavulanate potassium is a broad spectrum antibiotic used in the management of most bacterial infections. World-wide, it is manufactured and marketed by different companies. The innovator brand, Augmentin, is expensive, hence the need to substitute them with much cheaper generic brands. Moreover, the quality of different products of the combination is not guaranteed. The object of this study was to evaluate the quality of five common products of amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium 625mg tablets marketed in Gondar town. Assessment of their quality were done by the evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics such as uniformity of weight, thickness, diameter, friability, hardness, disintegration time and assay of the products against pharmacopoeial standards and in comparison with the innovator brand. All branded tablets met the standards for acceptance. All brands have the weight uniformity, thickness and diameter within the specification. However, tablets from B2 & B3 have a significant difference in thickness with the innovator; and all brands have a significantly higher diameter than the innovator. All brand tablets have sufficient crushing strength and TS. However, B2 has higher TS, and B4 has lower TS than the innovator. All brand tablets have less than 1% friability. All tablets contain Amoxicillin and Clavulanate potassium within the stated standard range of 90-110%. However, B1 is with the highest, whereas B5 is with the lowest content. In conclusion, all the brands met the minimum requirements of the specifications in the standards. Moreover, there was no extended deviation between the innovator and other brands under investigation in many of the parameters.

  3. Diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in superficial lymphadenopathy in pediatric patients Download Article

    Agarwal Ruchi, Duhan Amrita, Kundu Rana Parveen, Kamra Hemlata, Verma Sanjay, Beniwal Kalpana
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (17-23)
    • No of Download = 462

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    Background Lymphadenopathy is one of the common clinical presentations in outdoor patient department, especially in pediatric age group. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the lymph nodes has become an integral part of initial diagnosis and management of patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic utility of FNAC of lymph nodes and to study the spectrum of diseases in pediatric patients with superficial lymphadenopathy. Methods This study was carried out in Department of Pathology, Bhagat Phool Singh Government Medical College for Women, Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat from July 2012 to June 2015. A total of 217 cases of superficially palpable lymph nodes in pediatric age group (0-14 years) were included in this study. Observation In this study, M: F ratio is 1.4:1. Most common cause of lymphadenopathy was non-specific reactive hyperplasia 118 (54.88%) followed by granulomatous lymphadenitis 79 (36.74%), acute suppurative lymphadenitis 14(6.51%), and neoplastic 4 (1.86%). Among malignant group, all 4 cases are primary lymphoma. Male showed preponderance for reactive hyperplasia and suppurative lymphadenitis while tuberculous lymphadenitis was more common in females. Cervical group of lymph nodes were most frequently involved by all causes of lymphadenopathy. Conclusion FNAC is a simple, reliable, rapid and safe diagnostic modality for the etiologic workup in significant lymphadenopathy in children.

  4. Create awareness, motivation and counselling on tobacco cessation by clinical pharmacist. Download Article

    Praveen Kumar M, Manasa D, Teja Reddy G, Shilpa Ch ,Ramesh P, Prabanjan M
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (24-36)
    • No of Download = 272

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    INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization (WHO) estimates in 2004 projected 58.8 million deaths to occur globally, of which 5.4 million are attributed to tobacco use. As of 2002, 70% of the deaths are in developing countries. It is predicted that 1.5–1.9 billion people will be smokers in 2025. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives are to create Awareness, Motivation and Counselling on Tobacco Cessation by Clinical Pharmacist. METHODOLOGY: The study was Prospective Observational and Interventional survey based study. This study was approved by the ethical committee. A tobacco cessation survey was conducted at Mahabubnagar. RESULTS: In this programmed 220 individuals were enrolled and 110 individuals registered for quitting tobacco usage in which 57 individuals participated in counseling session. Out of 57 individual’s high number of tobacco users were found to be doing business and more number of individuals are found to be using cigarette compared to other products of tobacco. The starting age of tobacco usage is in the age group between 19-22 yrs according to our survey. Out of 57 tobacco users 18 individuals reduced or quit the tobacco use. The P value was found to be highly significant i.e., <0.0001***. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the Studies can be conducted in community pharmacies by giving Education, Awareness and Motivation on Tobacco Cessation. Sufficient funds should be provided to conduct Awareness on Tobacco Cessation Programmers. KEYWORDS: Nicotine Replacement Therapy, world health organization, smoking, tobacco, clinical pharmacist.

  5. ECTOPIC PREGNANCY – AN OVERVIEW Download Article

    Arepalli Susmitha, N. Sriram, C.Revathi
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (37-41)
    • No of Download = 482

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    Pregnancy is the state of carrying a baby by a female. It is known to occur within the gestational sac of the uterus. Apart from the gestational sac, pregnancy can occur even in other locations inside the body such as the fallopian tubes, ovary, fimbriae, abdomen etc. Pregnancy occurring in any location within the body apart from the gestational sac is termed as ectopic pregnancy. It is a rare condition where the persistence and further development of fetus is rarely possible. Ectopic pregnancy is found to be the most common cause of pregnancy-related deaths in the first trimester of pregnancy. Associated with various risk factors, it shows abdominal pain, amenorrhea and vaginal bleeding as major symptoms. It becomes a challenge for the doctors to diagnose it in time and manage it. By far, much diagnostic approaches and treatment options have not been developed. However, the life of the pregnant woman and her chances of acquiring another pregnancy in a healthy way can be preserved.

  6. National Strategy Female Genital Mutilation (FGM/C) Abandonment in Eritrea Download Article

    Abrehet Gebrekidan, Abdelhadi Eltahir, Dr. P. Kavitha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (42-51)
    • No of Download = 371

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    Introduction For more than a decade, total Abandonment of female genital Mutilation (FGM/C) has been a priority for The State of Eritrea. UN Agencies (UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO and others) in addition to the Local and International NGOs have also been involved in the movement that has brought a momentum and energized the national attention to the fight against the practice of FGM/C. However, during this time, there is a lack of a national strategy that provide structured framework for the Ministry of Health (MOH), its partners and all stakeholders involved in combating FGM/C. In order to develop a national strategy the MOH has taken the initiative and the lead with support from UNICEF and UNFPA and assigned two consultants to come out with this document. Background FGM/C is practiced in more than 28 African countries, in pockets of Asia such as Indonesia, and in parts of the Middle East including Egypt, Oman, Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM/C has been reported in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK, and the United States, occurring predominantly among immigrants from countries where FGM/C is practiced. An estimated 135 million women and girls worldwide have undergone FGM/C, and two million women and girls a year are at risk of being cut. Result The draft strategy is comprised of several sections in addition to the background information; these sections highlighted the current FGM/C status and findings in Eritrea with emphasis on effective and ongoing projects or activities. The section entitled; proposed strategic course of actions provides specific activities and pathway that would help the implementers to set their priorities at different levels: National, Regional and Community or grassroots. The critical assumptions listed indicate the situation or the platform on which program implementers build or design their actions and implementation plans. The key lessons learned on FGM/C Abandonment experiences from other countries are useful hints and making use of would save a considerable amount of time and assist the programmers and implementers to avoid a number of pitfalls and repetition of unnecessary practices. In the section of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) for FGM/C Abandonment a set of process and impact indicators are listed for the different levels of the National Strategy. The final section of funding and Leveraging of Resources gives a rough estimate of the budget needed for a course of 5 years and the potential sources of funding.

  7. Antiulcer activity of ethanolic bark extract of Dalbergia sissoo on experimental ulcer models Download Article

    Sanjay Raj Baral, Santosh Raman Acharya, Daya Ram Parajuli, ShivakumarSwamy, Rajendra Gyawali
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (52-60)
    • No of Download = 569

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    Gastric ulcer is one of the major health problem in the world. There is great demand of alternative herbal remedies for the treatment of ulcer as they have better cultural acceptability, minimal side effects, and better compatibility with the human body.D. Sissoo has been traditionally used for various ailments including gastric problem. Our study aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of crude ethanolic bark extract of Dalbergia sissoo(EBED) using pylorus ligation and Indomethacin induced ulcer model in Wistar albino rats.Antiulcer activity was evaluated by using four groups as; control (tween 80 1% v/v solution, 5 ml/kg), standard (Ranitidine 80 mg/kg), 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of bark extract given orally (p.o.). Various parameters like mean ulcer index, percentage protection, volume of gastric juice, gastric PH, protein, carbohydrate, pepsin, free and total acidity and ratio of total carbohydrates and proteins (TC:TP) were determined. Our study revealed the significant decrease (p<0.01) in mean ulcer index in EBED treated group in both the models compared to control. Furthermore, our study showed the significant decrease (p<0.01 and p<0.001) in the offensive factors like free and total acidity, pepsin content and protein content whereas significant increase in the defensive factors like total carbohydrate content(p<0.01) and TC:TP as compared to control in dose dependent manner. We concluded that EBEDpossess more potent antiulcer activity than leaf extract in our previous study in reducing the development of gastric ulcer as well as increasing the healing of the gastric ulcer in dose dependent manner.

  8. Attitude of college students toward girl child Download Article

    Sr. Merly, Angela Gnanadurai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (61-64)
    • No of Download = 365

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    The present study was aimed to assess the attitude of college students towards girl child in Kerala. A descriptive survey approach was used and the sample consisted of 300 students from three colleges of Kerala. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample and a 4-point likert scale was prepared to assess the attitude of students towards girl child. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Among the students, 225 students were girls and 75 were boys. Majority (97.3%) of the students were between the age group of 17-20 years. 60 % of the students were doing Information Technology course whereas 23.6% of students are from nursing course and 16.33 % of students are doing Pharmacy course. Findings of the study indicated that 96.7% of the students had positive attitude towards girl child and 3.3 % of them had neutral attitude and none of them had negative attitude. The comparison of attitude of boys and girls was done using‘t’ test and it shows statistical difference at 0.001 level. Girls are having more positive attitude towards girl child than boys

  9. Womb transplantation Download Article

    Nidhi Chakravarthi, Dr. S. Selvakumar, Pinky Donda. N.Sriram, C.Revathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (65-69)
    • No of Download = 341

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    Womb transplant is simply known as transplantation of womb to women who cannot carry out a pregnancy on their own due to disease condition or absence of the womb, after the womb transplantation gestation period is normal as healthy women. The child born is genetically similar to women who underwent womb transplantation. For embryo production in womb transplant drugs are given to the recipient for stimulation of eggs. Firstly, for production of embryo recipient own egg and partner’s sperm are frozen. Womb with two main arteries and veins are removed successfully from donor and implanted to recipient in a surgery. Women are given immune suppressants before 12 months of womb transplantation and then go through surgery. Womb can be donated by brain dead or alive donor. After successful pregnancy womb can be removed or can be given a second chance of pregnancy as per wish, mostly it should be removed as prolong use of immune suppressants can lead to diseases like cancer

  10. Walking corpse syndrome – A delusion of being dead Download Article

    Arepalli Susmitha, Dr. S. Selvakumar, N. Sriram, C.Revathi
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (70-74)
    • No of Download = 571

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    Walking corpse syndrome is a rare condition which is yet to be classified as a disorder. Its distinguishing feature is the nihilistic delusion of being dead and denying the presence of organs and blood in his body. Its incidence, prevalence, etiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis are yet to be discovered. This syndrome is often associated with other psychiatric disorders and medical conditions including Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, migraine, syphilis, etc. Various hypotheses have been postulated to explain the cause of this syndrome such as multifocal brain atrophy, inter hemispheric enlargement and various others. CT, MRI scan, EEG may help in observing brain abnormalities leading to this syndrome. Its stages are identified as germination, blooming and chronic stage. It is classified into psychotic depression, Cotard type 1 and Cotard type 2. By far, Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the best treatment option for this syndrome. Benzodiazepines like olanzapine and mirtazapine have also shown good therapeutic results in this syndrome. This syndrome may be resolved soon with ECT and benzodiazepines. Treating the associated medical conditions ensures good prognosis.

  11. Evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme regarding prevention of Byssinosis disease among cotton mill workers in selected mills at Bijapur, Karnataka. Download Article

    Basheerahemad Sikandar, Shalmon Chopade, Shashikumar Jawadagi, Kavitha K
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (75-82)
    • No of Download = 530

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    Background of the study Occupational health is branch of community medicine which deals with the effects of occupation on health. Every occupation is associated with one or other ill effects on health. One such occupational group is cotton workers. Generally cotton dust is found in the air when handling or processing cotton. Cotton and synthetic textile industry in India is the largest industry in the country accounting for 20 percent of industrial output and providing employment to around 20 million workers. The workers are at risk of suffering from various chronic respiratory illnesses including byssinosis. AIM: The aims are to enhance safety and care to the cotton mill workers in relation to occupational hazards; and to support public health programmes by providing reliable, balanced information for the effective assessment of occupational hazards and its prevention. Methodology The pre-experimental, one group pre-test-post-test design was used to evaluate the knowledge of 60 cotton mill workers regarding Byssinosis disease. The structured questionnaire schedule was used to collect the data from the respondents. The pre-test was followed by implementation of structured teaching programme and post-test was conducted on 7th day after STP, to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching programme. Result The overall mean knowledge score of post-test 90.57% with the SD of 10.08 is comparatively greater than the overall mean knowledge score of pre-test 41.72% with the SD of 11.60. Further, the enhancement of the overall mean knowledge score is 48.85% with the SD of 14.38%. Paired ‘t’ test has been computed to find the significant difference between mean knowledge score of pre-test and post-test are found to be significant at 0.001 level (t = 26.3103). Therefore the finding reveals that the planned teaching programme on Byssinosis disease was effective teaching in improving the knowledge of cotton mill workers. Hence, the stated hypothesis is accepted. Conclusion After analyzing the gathered information, the researcher got to know the facts about knowledge of Cotton mill workers regarding prevention of Byssinosis disease. Based on the outcome of the study, following suggestions are made to the various fields of nursing such as nursing practice, nursing education, nursing administration and nursing research.

  12. Pattern of glomerular diseases in tertiary care center. A retrospective observational study Download Article

    Ramakant Desale, Virendra Yadav, Tejshree Hagwane, Tukaram Jamale, Nilkanth Hase
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (83-89)
    • No of Download = 474

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    Background There is limited population-based epidemiological data on renal disease. The knowledge of the epidemiology of biopsied renal diseases provides useful information in clinical practice. Aim To find out the prevalence of primary and secondary glomerular diseases and to study the pattern of the glomerular disease in a tertiary care center. Material and Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional observational study where we saw the data of more than 20,000 patients in the department of Nephrology. In a study the clinical and histopathological data of these patients were analyzed. Age, gender, address, record number, date of assessment and date of last follow-up were noted. Results This study shows review of total 3120 renal biopsies retrospectively from 1973-2013, out of which 1822 (58.39%) were male and 1298 (41.60%) were female. The mean age of patients was 26.20 + 25.45 years (range 1 month to 94 years). The classification of histopathology of glomerular disease was done in primary and secondary glomerular disease. In Primary glomerulonephritis (PGD) Minimal Change Disease (MCD) was 21.25% the most common presentation followed by Membrano Proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) 18.5% and Focal Segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) 14.95%, while in Secondary glomerular disease (SGD) Lupus Nephritis (LN) 9.16% was commonest presentation followed by Amyloidosis 3.16% & Diabetic Nephropathy 0.33% (DN). Conclusion MPGN and FSGS were increasing and MCD was the leading histopathological pattern.

  13. Unusual incidental findings of routine histopathological examination of appendectomy specimens- a 2-year retrospective analysis with review of the literature Download Article

    Divya Rabindranath, Azka Anees Khan, Hena Ansari, Senthil P
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (90-98)
    • No of Download = 295

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    Objective To review the diagnosis of all patients that underwent appendectomy at our institute over a period of 2 years, and to correlate the histopathological diagnosis with the clinical diagnosis in each case. Material and methods This was a 2 year retrospective study including all patients that presented to our institute with acute appendicitis and underwent appendectomy for the same, over the period of 2 years. Cases that underwent appendectomies as an incidental procedure during some other operation were excluded. Results A total of 325 cases were included in our study. Majority of these cases (300/325, 92.3%) showed features of appendicitis (acute, subacute, chronic, recurrent or resolving). 17 (5.2%) of the cases were labeled as normal while the remaining cases (8/325, 2.5%) had some unexpected abnormal findings including 2 cases of mucocele and 1 case each of granulomatous appendicitis, eosinophilic obliterative appendicitis, well differentiated mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, well differentiated adenocarcinoma, carcinoid and low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm with pseudomyxoma peritonei. Conclusion Though majority of cases had the usual features, a few of these had important incidental diagnoses which were not suspected preoperatively or even intraoperatively by the surgeon. These findings support the opinion that all appendectomy specimens should be routinely sent for histopathological examination, which is unfortunately not the scenario in many centers across India.

  14. Prevalence of gram positive and gram negative organisms in various clinical samples Download Article

    M.Anitha, Sathya Pandurangan, DM.Monisha, J.Hemapriya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (99-107)
    • No of Download = 426

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    Background The present work was aimed to depict the prevalence of Gram positive and Gram negative organisms isolated from different clinical samples. Materials and Methods Different pathogenic organisms were isolated from Males and females of different clinical samples such as Midstream Urine, Miscellaneous (Sputum, Pus, HVS, Body fluids, endotracheal aspirates, Eye swabs) and Blood samples, during the period of October 2015 to December 2015. Samples were processed and identification of isolates were done by gram staining, biochemical test. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of isolated pathogenic organisms was done by a disk diffusion technique using Mueller Hinton Agar plates according to CLSI guidelines. Results Out of total 770 samples analyzed, 414 samples showed the presence of bacteria, whereas 356 samples showed no growth of organisms on culture medium. Microbial growth revealed the presence of 11 different organisms which are reported here (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Citrobacter koseri, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes). Conclusion The present study provided the most needed information on the prevalence of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which were also responsible for infections in Urine, Miscellaneous and Blood samples.

  15. In vitro antioxident and free radical scavenging studies of Carissa Spinarum L Download Article

    K.Sumathi, Dr.N.Senthil Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (108-111)
    • No of Download = 353

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    Free radicals are implicated for many diseases including cancer, diabetes mellitus, arthritis, ageing etc. In the treatment of these diseases, antioxidant therapy has gained very importance. Various extract of Carissa spinarum L was studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity used different models viz. ABTS radical scavenging, DPPH radical scavenging, H2O2, Hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation and Super oxide. The results were analyzed statistically by the regression methods. The scavenging effect of plant extracts and standard (L.ascorbic acid) on the various scavenging methods in the following order L-ascorbic acid >Ethanol>Ethyl acetate>Chloroform>Pet ether. Its antioxidant activity was estimated by IC50 value and the values are 102.6 to 244.2 μg/ml (ABTSradical scavenging), 200.41 to354.42 μg/ml (DPPH radical scavenging), 152.31to 236.12 μg/ml (H2O2), 188.74 to 296.41 μg/ml (Hydroxyl radical), 142.12 to291.41 μg/ml (Lipid peroxidation), and 157.42 to 306.16 μg/ml (Super oxide). The results clearly indicate that Carissa spinarum L has a significant potential to use as a natural antioxidant agent.

  16. Thrombocyte: the prime target of dengue virus – A review Download Article

    Srija Poreddy, Angel Rajakumari .G, N.Sriram, C.Revathi
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (112-116)
    • No of Download = 489

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    Dengue fever is an endemic infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV). A sustained increase in the incidence of dengue infection is clear in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Clinical manifestations in dengue ranges from fever on 2nd-3rd day to thrombocytopenia on 4th day. Initial stage of dengue fever may progress to potentially fatal Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The main targets of DENV are platelets, as a result thrombocytopenia is regarded as the potential indicator in the diagnosis of dengue. There is no particular therapeutics for the treatment of dengue infection. Acetaminophen is generally given to reduce pain and fever. Platelet transfusion was performed in some hospitalized patients, but its effectiveness is controversial. This article also specifies on unnecessary platelet transfusion therapies which are now considered harmful more than having beneficial effects in patients with dengue.

  17. Trichophyton schoenleinii: An Unusual Cause of Tinea corporis Download Article

    Prasanna S, Kandaswamy M, Srinivasan G, Karthika Jayakumar
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (117-120)
    • No of Download = 429

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    Trichophyton schoenleinii is transmitted by contact between humans and is an example of anthropophilic dermatophyte. T.schoenleinii is a most common cause of favic type of tinea capitis followed by onychomycosis. Almost complete disappearance of many anthropophilic dermatophytes including Trichophyton schoenleinii post Second World War due to the improved life style and hygiene. The main objective of this case report is to present Trichophyton schoenleinii an unusual cause of Tinea corporis in a patient residing in a silk city of Kancheepuram.

  18. A comparative study of single layer interrupted extramucosal (serosubmucosal) and double layer intestinal anastomosis Download Article

    Dr Yogendra, Dr Md Mokarram Ali
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (121-126)
    • No of Download = 341

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    INTRODUCTION Intestinal anastomosis is the establishment of communication between two formerly distant portions of the intestine. A significant proportion of the operations on the gastrointestinal tract involve the repair of the gut and it is this aspect of surgery of alimentary canal which is associated with dangerous complications. The breakdown of suture line or repaired site may result in peritonitis, fecal fistula and serious or fatal septic complications. Anastomotic breakdown remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and prolonged stay after operations on the gastrointestinal tract. Of the various methods of intestinal anastomosis, two layered interrupted anastomosis using various types of suture material is the most common type used by surgeons worldwide. However, recently several reports have appeared advocating the benefits of single layer extramucosal (serosubmucosal) anastomosis which causes less narrowing of the lumen and maintains good vascularity of anastomotic site. Further, this anastomosis requires less time to fashion, costs less than any other method and have a lower risk of complications and leakage. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to compare the utility of single layer interrupted extramucosal (serosubmucosal) anastomosis over the conventional double layer intestinal anastomosis in emergency as well as elective laparotomy cases and to compare their results. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 50 patients were included, divided into two groups of 25 each. In study group, Single Layer Extramucosal Anastomosis using Silk 3-0 Round Body was performed. In control group, conventional Double Layer Anastomosis using Vicryl 3-0 Round Body and Silk 3-0 Round Body was performed. RESULTS • The time taken for anastomosis in single layer anastomosis was less than that in control group in both elective as well as emergency cases. • Early return of bowel function with less complication rates in study group. • Single layer anastomosis costs less than two layer technique. CONCLUSION Single layer interrupted extramucosal (serosubmucosal) anastomotic technique can be easily applied in surgical practice especially in emergency situations because it will not only save the precious time of surgeons as well as anesthetists, but also will be beneficial to the patient.

  19. Prevalence of multiple beta lactamases producing gram negative bacilli from various clinical samples in a tertiary care center at Kancheepuram. Download Article

    Divya. G, Karthika Jayakumar, Aarya.V.Sankar.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (127-135)
    • No of Download = 416

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    Introduction The increasing numbers of multiple beta lactamases produced organisms leave very limited treatment options for clinicians. Single organism expressing multiple beta lactamase enzymes further complicated the treatment option. Hence this study investigated the co-existence of multiple beta lactamase enzymes in clinical isolates of gram negative bacteria. Materials and methods A total of 435 consecutive, non-repetitive, gram negative isolates were collected from various clinical samples included in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as per CLSI. All the bacterial strains were subjected for detection of ESBL, AmpC, and MBL enzymes as recommended by CLSI. Results Out of 435 gram negative bacilli, 105 (24%) were ESBL producers, 40 (9%) were AmpC enzyme producer and 5 (1%) were MBL producers. E.coli was the predominant isolate accounting for (34.3%) of ESBL production, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31.5%), Klebsiella sps (19%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (31%). The highest incidence of AmpC was seen in E.coli 15.9%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10.8%, Klebsiella sps 6.6% and Acinetobacter baumannii 6.8% respectively. While MBL production was only seen in 5 (1%) isolates. Co-existence of ESBL and AmpC was observed in 11 (2.5%), ESBL and MBL coproduction was detected in 4 (1%) and the coproduction of AmpC and MBL was observed in one isolate (0.2%). Conclusion Rapid identification of these enzymes along with routine sensitivity reports will help the clinicians in prescribing proper antibiotics and implementing infection control measures to prevent the dissemination of such resistance strains.

  20. Benefits of Bimodal Stimulation in Children with Cochlear Implant: Role of Contralateral Residual Acoustic Hearing and Auditory Experience with Bimodal Stimulation Download Article

    S. B. Rathna Kumar and Panchanan Mohanty
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (136-147)
    • No of Download = 318

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    There is a continuing growth in the number of cochlear implant (CI) recipients who have some amount of usable residual acoustic hearing in at least one ear. Many such recipients obtain perceptual benefits from the use of hearing aid (HA) in the contralateral ear. The present study aimed to assess the benefits of bimodal stimulation (i.e. CI in one ear and HA in the contralateral ear) in children as a function of the level of contralateral residual acoustic hearing and auditory experience with bimodal stimulation. Speech recognition performance was evaluated in quiet and noisy environments under monaural CI alone and bimodal CI+HA listening conditions. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of noise on speech recognition performance. There was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in speech recognition performance under monaural CI alone listening condition in noisy environment. However, the effect of noise on speech recognition performance was minimized under bimodal CI+HA listening conditions as compared to monaural CI alone listening condition. The subjects obtained significantly higher (p<0.05) speech recognition performance under bimodal CI+HA listening condition as compared to monaural CI alone listening condition especially in noisy environments. It was further observed that the subjects obtained similar bimodal benefit irrespective of differences in the level of contralateral residual acoustic hearing. However, subjects with longer duration of auditory experience with bimodal stimulation could only achieve significant bimodal benefits compared to the subjects with less auditory experience with bimodal stimulation. Hence, children who receive a monaural cochlear implant and cannot opt for bilateral cochlear implantation for whatever reasons should be encouraged to use a hearing aid in the opposite ear irrespective of the level of residual acoustic hearing in that ear. However, sufficient auditory experience with bimodal stimulation is needed to achieve this bimodal benefit.

  21. Cervical Spondylosis-A Review Download Article

    Suddhasheel Roy, Vishwambhar Singh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (148-150)
    • No of Download = 451

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    Cervical pain is a very common complain encountered in ENT outdoors. Cervical spondylosis is one of the leading causes presenting with cervical pain. The different possible presentations, evaluation, pathophysiology and treatment of this disease are discussed in brief.

  22. 4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-styryl quinoline, its synthesis and antibacterial activity Download Article

    B. Deepthi, Y. Keerthi Reddy, L. Sushma, K. Shivakanth reddy, G.Sammaiah, A. Sambasiva Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (151-154)
    • No of Download = 397

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    P-anisidine on treatment with ethyl aceto acetate in refluxing ethanol for 4hrs gave Ethyl-3-[4-methoxyphenyl) imino] butanol which is on thermal cyclization in hot propylene glycol at 1000c gave 4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl quinoline. The latter on heating with POCl3 gave 4-chloro-6-methox-2-methyl quinoline which on treatment with benzaldehyde gave corresponding 4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-styryl quinoline. The product have been characterized based on the spectral data and have been evaluated for its antibacterial activity.

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