Articles

  1. Laparoscopic sub total cholecystectomy - Our experience Download Article

    Ravi Kumar Mangalampalli, Sridhar Punyapu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (255-259)
    • No of Download = 213

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    INTRODUCTION Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is considered as a standard procedure for cholelithiasis. But when the anatomy of triangle of Calot is distorted by acute or chronic inflammation, Open Subtotal Cholecystectomy with or without cystic duct ligation is the choice of surgery. Increasing experience in laparoscopic surgery has made laparoscopic Subtotal cholecystectomy (LSTC) as a safer feasible alternative. In the recent years, a few studies have shown good results with LSTC. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study 590 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in Railway Hospital, Secunderabad were analyzed. RESULTS Out of the total 590 cases, 125 were difficult gall bladder surgeries. Subtotal cholecystectomy was performed in 25 cases, out of which 23 were completed laparoscopically. Three patients had residual calculi which were managed by ERCP and two patients had cholangitis which were treated with antibiotics. There was no mortality and minimum morbidity amongst the patients. CONCLUSION Laparoscopic Subtotal cholecystectomy is a safe, relatively simple and definitive procedure allowing removal of a difficult gallbladder and reducing the need for open conversion or cholecystostomy in the majority of patients.

  2. Evaluation of adverse effect risk factors of drugs in pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis Download Article

    K.Sattanathan., C.P.Azhar, A.Prakash., Shyamily John, SK.Chandini, R.Sambathkumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (260-263)
    • No of Download = 366

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    Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection that can spread through the lymph nodes and bloodstream to any organ in our body. The present study was to evaluate the adverse effect risk factors of drugs in pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis. This study concluded that vomiting, gastric upset dizziness, color changes in urine, itching and chest pain were the main reported adverse reaction.

  3. Gaps between awareness and practices of breast feeding among mothers attending a paediatrics clinic in a rural hospital along the coastal belt of south kerala Download Article

    Vincy Nelson, Ahmad Nadeem Aslami, Sony Simon
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (264-270)
    • No of Download = 581

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    BACKGROUND Promotion of proper breastfeeding practices in the first year of child is the most cost-effective intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Early initiation of breast feeding is very important for child’s growth & development. OBJECTIVES To study the gaps between the awareness and practices of breast feeding among mothers of infants attending a paediatric clinic in a rural hospital of South Kerala and to find out the association of age group and parity with early initiation of breast feeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS A Cross sectional study was done in Chirayinkeezhu taluk hospital among mothers attending a paediatrics clinic from June 2012 to August 2012. The sample size was 200 and simple random sampling was used. Statistical analysis was done and chi-square test & percentages were calculated. RESULT 94.5% of mothers knew that breast milk is essential for the growth of the child although 85.5% continued breast feeding even after a year. The gap between the awareness and practice for continued breast feeding at one year, early initiation, colostrum and exclusive breastfeeding was 9%, 12.5%, 4% and 12.5% respectively. The most common reason for non-initiation of early breast feeding was belief of not having enough milk secretion. Complementary feeding was started at the end of 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th month by 49.5%, 44.5%, 39.5% and 36% of the mothers. There is a significant association between high parity and early initiation of breast feeding. CONCLUSION Early initiation of breast feeding is still not prevalent among mothers, mostly due to lack of awareness and cultural aspects. Hence Information Education and Communication activities should be made very effective to educate mothers. Mothers should be aware that time period for exclusive breast feeding is initial six months.

  4. Duplication of small gut present in right iliac fossa lump in adult patient: A rare clinical presentation Download Article

    Kumar Rakesh, Kajla R.K, Dhukiya Ramniwas, Bhalerao Pradeep, Jat Shaankarlal
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (271-273)
    • No of Download = 440

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    Duplication of gut presenting as recurrent obstruction as recurrent vomiting and colicky abdominal pain an adult is a very rare clinical presentation. Here we report a case of an adult male patient came with recurrent vomiting and colicky pain was caused by tubular communicating 3rd part of duodenum with terminal ileum through mesenteric border. This condition was managed by performing laparotomy, excision of duplicated segment of both ends (duodenal and ileal attachment) and stapled repair of ilea and duodenal ends.

  5. A study of malignant lesions of head and neck - Clinico-pathological correlation Download Article

    Dr. G. Indrani, Dr. B. Nagaraja Dr. B.V. Sai Prasad Dr. B. Anuradha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (274-276)
    • No of Download = 307

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    In the present study comprising cases of 5 years duration. (2009-2014). Out of total 13,523 biopsies registered, 9.1% (957 cases) are head and neck lesions. Out of 8000 tumours registered, head and neck 6.63% (737 cases) are 6.63%. Among head and neck tumours, neoplastic lesions are more common accounting for 82% (737 cases) and tumor like lesions accounting for 18% (163 cases). Among the neoplastic lesions, benign tumors are the most common constituting 54% (405 cases) and malignant tumors 46% (332 cases). Among malignant tumors, check buccal-mucosa, neoplasms of unspecified parts of mouth are the most common tumor’s comprising 53.3% (174 cases). Among tumor like lesions, chronic inflammations are commonest. The most common age of occurrence of benign tumors is observed in 4th decade.

  6. A study of morphological variants of bone tumors in correlation with pathological, clinical and radiological findings Download Article

    Dr. B. Nagaraja; Dr. G. Indrani Dr. B.V. Sai Prasad Dr. B. Anuradha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (277-279)
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    Among the primary bone tumors, the incidence of benign tumors are more than malignant tumors. Osteochondroma was the commonest of all benign tumors. Osteosarcoma was the commonest of all malignant bone tumors.

  7. Male form of persistent mullerian duct– A case report Download Article

    Dr.G.Aruna Jyothi, Nitya Waghray, Dr.Saju B Cherian, Dr.Shabana Sultana
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (280-284)
    • No of Download = 360

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    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a developmental disorder. The males suffering from this disorder also bear uterus and fallopian tube which belong to the female reproductive system. During the development of fetus a structure known as the Mullerian or the Para mesonephric duct gives rise to the uterus and the fallopian tube. Generally, Mullerian duct degenerates in males during the early development, however if this persist it leads to PMDS. Affected males although have the normal genotype (46, XY) and normal external male genitalia. Males with persistent Müllerian duct syndrome usually present with undescended testes (cryptorchidism) or inguinal hernias. The uterus and fallopian tubes are usually discovered when surgery is performed to treat these conditions. PMDS (PMDS) is usually an accidental finding either during orchipexy or during routine inguinal hernia repair in male patients. It is caused by a defect in the mullerian inhibiting substance system. PMDS is a rare disorder; however, the prevalence of the condition is unknown. The authors report a case of an 11year old male child with PMDS and bilateral undescended testis.

  8. Neuroendocrine tumour of periampullary region presenting as obstructive jaundice in a patient of neurofibromatosis: a case report Download Article

    MD Mokarram Ali, R K Kajla, Prabhu Dayal, Pradeep Bhalerao, Rakesh Khedar
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (285-287)
    • No of Download = 261

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    Patients of neurofibromatosis sometimes develop neuroendocrine tumour [NET]. These NETs are usually found in duodenum or periampullary region .We report a case of a patient with neurofibromatosis, who presented with obstructive jaundice. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy showed a periampullary growth. An endoscopic biopsy was taken which was not conclusive of any neoplastic growth. A pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The specimen was sent for histopathology. The tumor was later on diagnosed as well differentiated NET, low grade.

  9. A study to observe levels of inflammatory markers and their correlation with dyslipidemia in diabetics Download Article

    Anju Varghese, Asha N S, Celine T M, Prasanna D
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (288-292)
    • No of Download = 326

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    The present study was undertaken to observe levels of inflammatory markers and their correlation with dyslipidemia in diabetics. 35 diabetic patients, already diagnosed and attending diabetic clinic and 35 normal healthy subjects aged 30-70 years were recruited for the present study by convenient sampling technique. Fasting serum sample was taken for analysis of plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, serum CRP, serum Cp, serum TSA. Data were analysed using Microsoft excel. We conclude that, a strong association was present between inflammatory marker TSA and lipid profile. This study revealed that low grade inflammation is found in diabetic patients. The coexistence of metabolic syndrome and proatherogenic profile in T2DM needs urgent intervention as these can lead to future cardiovascular problems.

  10. Schistosoma in prostate- A case report Download Article

    Dr. Ruchi Sharma, Dr. Sadhana D Mahore, Dr Hrushikesh Kolhe, Dr. Revati Patil, Dr. Kalpana Bothale, Dr. Anne Wilkinson
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (293-297)
    • No of Download = 341

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    Schistosomiasis is prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical areas, especially in poor communities without access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. There are two major forms of schistosomiasis – intestinal and urogenital – caused by five main species of blood fluke. Genital involvement has been described to occur in infection with all species of Schistosoma, but it is particularly frequent in S. haematobium infection. Schistosoma infestation has been particularly endemic in africa and middle east however, significant change in its geographical distribution has been observed in recent years. Advancement in health and hygiene as well as snail control measures and chemotherapy has eliminated the threat from several endemic countries. On the contrary, population movement from endemic zones and expansion of natural habitat of snail associated with unplanned establishment of dam and irrigation projects has resulted in emergence of newer endemic foci. Here we report a case of schistosoma haematobium in prostate of a 65 year old male patient, presented with swelling over left inguinal region and unable to pass urine. Clinically, diagnosed as grade II prostatomegaly with left inguinal hernia. Ultrasonography shows prostatomegaly with right sided hydronephrosis. Studies have associated schistosomiasis with malignant neoplasia. In the reviewed literature, only few cases of co-occurrence of adenocarcinoma of the prostate and S. haematobium have been reported.

  11. Correlation of atherosclerotic and thrombotic coronary artery disease with anatomical distribution Download Article

    Sonu .R, K.Prasannan, Vidya Kuniyil
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (298-301)
    • No of Download = 285

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    ABSTRACT Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressive disease of arteries marked by elevated fibro fatty intimal plaque involving large to medium sized muscular arteries like coronary arteries. Atherosclerotic changes occur not in a uniform pattern. It tends to occur in certain predisposed regions. The distribution of coronary artery in the coronary artery and its branches are studied in dead bodies brought for post mortem examination. The incidence of atherosclerotic change in relation to the branches of coronary arteries is studied. The incidence of atherosclerosis was found to be more at the branching site of the coronary arteries. It was maximum at the site of division of the left main coronary into anterior descending (ADB) and circumflex (LCx) branches. The branching site (BS) and its proximal part also showed equal incidence. Right coronary (RCA) showed maximum incidence at the branching site (BS). The proximal part of right coronary showed relatively lower incidence.

  12. Serum nitric oxide (NO) production in preeclampsia Download Article

    Dr.Asha.N.S, Dr.Anju Varghese
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (302-304)
    • No of Download = 304

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    The present study was undertaken to observe the levels of Serum nitric oxide (NO) with preeclampsia. 50 preeclamptic patients in the third trimester and 50 normal healthy subjects in the third trimester with normal blood pressure and no complications were recruited for the present study by convenient sampling technique. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. P-value <0.05 was taken as significant. In the present study, we have observed lower S.nitrite levels in patients when compared with control group. Our data provides further evidence that support that diminished nitric oxide synthesis contributes to the pathophysiologic changes seen in preeclampsia

  13. Students’ preference towards use of different teaching methods for medical microbiology Download Article

    Sudheendra Kulkarni, Kumar Sai Sailesh, Chandrakant Chillarge.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (305-307)
    • No of Download = 288

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    The present study was undertaken to understand the MBBS student’s preference in teaching Medical Microbiology to provide them better teaching to improve their performance in examinations. The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Bidar Institute of Medical sciences, Bidar. 60 male (n=20) and female (n=40) second year MBBS students were included in the study. Students were asked to give their preference regarding five types of teaching methods followed at our institute (Black board alone, OHP (Over Head Projector) alone, Power Point presentation (PPT) alone, Over Head Projector (OHP) + Black board, PowerPoint presentation (PPT) + Black board) and also provided opportunity to write additional comments or suggestions for improving the teaching. In the present study, most of the students preferred combination of black board and power point presentation to teach Medical Microbiology. Hence, we recommend combination of both black board and power point presentation in teaching Medical Microbiology in our institute.

  14. A Path way to the Centric – Gothic Arch Download Article

    Dr Babita Yeshwante, Dr. Nikita Kale, Dr.Nazish Baig, Dr. Nikita Parasrampuria
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (308-312)
    • No of Download = 1491

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    Clinical skill is the key for the correct establishment of the accurate and verifiable maxillomandibular records. With this skill comes the ability to create an occlusion that is harmonious, functional, and comfortable to the edentulous patient in need of prosthetic treatment. The article thereby reviews the most reliable method of recording the maxillomandibular relationship of the mandible in its posterior most position in the glenoid fossa. Keeping in mind the merits and demerits, the perfect Gothic arch tracing, is an art which combines the skill of the prosthodontist and patient cooperation along with it. Hence a good centric is a reflection of the tracing obtained from the patient.

  15. Fibro epithelial polyp at unusual site a rare presentation. A case report Download Article

    Dr. Usha Kataria, Dr. Parveen Rana, Dr. Dinesh Chhillar, Dr. Sonia Vasisht, Dr. Kalpana Baniwal
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (313-316)
    • No of Download = 286

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    A 16 year old male patient presented with group of papular skin lesions over the postero-lateral side of right thigh for last two years, lesions were gradually increasing in size. There was no family history of such lesions. Skin biopsy was taken and sent for histo-pathological examination. The case was diagnosed as of fibro epithelial Polyp and there were no malignant changes.

  16. Cutaneous histoplasmosis - A case report Download Article

    Dr.Akanksha Salkar, Dr.Anjali Patrikar, Dr.Archana Joshi, Dr.Kalpana Bothale, Dr. Gunjan Loney, Dr. S.Mahore
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (317-320)
    • No of Download = 295

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    Histoplasmosis, also known as Darling’s disease or Tingo Maria fever, is caused by dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. In India, several cases of Histoplasmosis have been reported since 1954, but only a few cases could be diagnosed on cytology and histopathology. Confirmation of diagnosis can be done by fungal culture but it is rarely practiced. Here, we report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with skin and oral lesions with generalized lymphadenopathy in a HIV positive female.

  17. Prescription pattern for beta lactam antibiotics and their ADR in pediatrics Download Article

    K.Sattanathan, V.Sekar, Shyamily John, SK.Chandini, S. Jayaseelan, R.Sambathkumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (321-328)
    • No of Download = 448

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    β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a β-lactam ring in their molecular structures. This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems1-4. Most β-lactam antibiotics work by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis in the bacterial organism and are the most widely used group of antibiotics. This study Prescription pattern for beta lactam antibiotics and their ADR in pediatrics was carried out in tertiary care hospital Erode. The total number of the patients was 90. This work was carried out on some inclusion and exclusion criteria. We concluded that the Cephalosporin’s class of antibiotics was highly prescribed followed by penicillins. The ADR were found Hypersensitivity and Gastrointestinal Diarrhea.

  18. Malignant melanoma of buccal mucosa – A case report Download Article

    Dr. Radhika Mhatre, Dr. Anne Wilkinson, Dr. Sadhana Mahore, Dr. Sabiha Maimoon
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (329-332)
    • No of Download = 232

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    Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm of melanocyte origin arising from the neural crest cells. Although most melanomas arise from the skin, they may also arise from the mucosal surface. Oral melanomas comprise less than 0.2 to 8% of all melanomas with hard palate and maxillary gingiva being the most frequently involved sites. Due to asymptomatic and painless presentation diagnosis is delayed. Oral melanoma has a low survival and its prognosis is poor and worse than that of cutaneous melanoma. This article describes a case of malignant melanoma of buccal mucosa in a 45 year old male patient.

  19. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal potential of poly herbal formulation against castor oil induced diarrhoea in rodents Download Article

    S.Manimaran, T.K.Praveen, A.Manohari and Pachava Vengalrao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (333-339)
    • No of Download = 317

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    Diarrhoea is the frequent passing of loose, watery and unformed faeces. Loss of fluids through diarrhoea can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance and ultimately leads to death. The aim and objective of the present study is to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal potential of the poly herbal formulation (Anogeissus latifolia, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia hirta) against castor oil induced diarrhoea. In the current study Polyherbal solution was formulated using various plant extracts listed above and mixed with excipients and evaluated for physicochemical and antidiarrhoeal activity. The standard drug used for study was loperamide. Animals was divided in to five groups of 6 animals each and diarrhea was induced by administration of castor oil at a dose of 1ml/kg b.w and the poly herbal formulation was administered at 200 & 400mg/kg dose levels orally. The antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated by estimating the mean number of droppings mean weight of droppings and % intestinal transit. Results were analysed by oneway ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s test. Studies revealed that poly herbal formulation at doses 200 & 400 mg/kg b.w p.o showed significant results in a dose dependent manner comparable with that of standard Lopramide 5mg/kg b.w.

  20. Quality of Life of Spouses of Breast Cancer patients Download Article

    Bincy Mathew, Brindha Sitaram, Tony Sam George
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (340-348)
    • No of Download = 342

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    Spouses play an important role, both physically and emotionally when it comes to the life events of a couple. The impact of a cancer diagnosis in particular, would affect the lives of both the patient and their spouse in various aspects. The study uses a quantitative method to understand the impact of the illness on male spouses of patients with breast cancer. The tools used for the study include the Caregiver Oncology Quality of Life tool and a semi-structured questionnaire. The data obtained from the sample (n=30) is analyzed using Descriptive statistics to study overall Quality of Life of spouses. Paired‘t’ test is used to compare Quality of life of spouses according to Place of residence (Rural and Urban), Age (Above 50 years and Below 50 years) and Number of years of marriage (Above 25 years and Below 25 years). The study found that spouses of breast cancer patients have a good quality of life.

  21. A study on impact of clinical pharmacist intervention on knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with diabetes in a tertiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    Mahesh Kumar S, Praveen Kumar M, Shiva Krishna G, Amulya P, Navaneetha K, Nagireddy G
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (349-358)
    • No of Download = 264

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    The number of people with Diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of Obesity and Physical inactivity. Quantifying the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people affected by diabetes, now and in the future, is important to allow rational planning and allocation of resources. The study was conducted for a period of 6 months with 2 follow ups; where 1st follow up was held on the 15th day and the II follow up on the next 30th day of the patient enrolment. Patients were assessed for their KAP on baseline, I and II follow ups. Intervention group patients were counseled through patient information leaflets.

  22. Assess the efficacy of reminiscence therapy on wellbeing among the elderly person Download Article

    Mrs.Soumya Sonalika, Dr.Sikandar Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (359-366)
    • No of Download = 217

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    A quantitative approach and pre experimental research design was undertaken on 50 elders selected by purposive sampling technique. To evaluate the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on efficacy of Reminiscence therapy on wellbeing among elderly person of Missionaries Charity of Mother Teresa Old Age home Satyanagar, Bhubaneswar. Data was collected through structured questionnaires schedule and collected data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Finding revealed that highest percentage of elderly were in the age 66-70 years (46%). 20% were male, 44% were illiterate, 54% belong to nuclear family, 38% having moderate income and all belongs to old age home.

  23. Anti-retroviral therapy induced adverse effects and its management: A brief review Download Article

    Kandimalla.Chaitanya, Minu K. George, Bandlamudi.Yasaswini, Sudhakar.R
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (367-372)
    • No of Download = 255

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    The introduction and the widespread use of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the perspective of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which leads to substantial decrease in morbidity and mortality rates. It is now the standard care of therapy includes 15 antiretroviral drugs available in four different drug classes, adverse effects vary from drug to drug and patient to patient. Hence, choosing between many of these combinations requires the adequate knowledge about Anti-Retroviral Therapy toxicities. The basic purpose of Anti-Retroviral Therapy is to maintain the quality of life of patients, but it is difficult to continue for prolonged duration because of problem with adherence and adverse-effects. This review mainly highlights the various classes of Anti-Retroviral Therapy, associated adverse effects, possible mechanisms and their effective management in order to improve adherence and quality of life.

  24. The Evaluation of Variation in the Length of Styloid Process of Indian Population and Its Applied Importance Download Article

    Dr.Gopalakrishna.K, Dr.Shrikrishna.G.Kulkarni, Dr.BS.Rathna
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (373-378)
    • No of Download = 342

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    The styloid process has variable length with average of 25mm. Its length ≥ 30 mm is termed as elongated. The variation in the length may produce wide variety of symptoms in head and neck region as it is approximated to important neurovascular structures. This study is designed to evaluate the significant variability of length of styloid process in the study sample and the value mentioned the anatomy text books and to know the bilateral relationship between them. Materials & methods: random sampling of 98 (n) styloid processes from 49 dry adult human skulls of Indian origin was used in this study. The student t-test, Scatterplot and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Result: The mean length in the study sample was 24.05±4.8mm [range: 9.12mm to 36.13mm]. Significant difference was not found (p>0.05) between sample and text book value (25mm). Strong Positive linear correlation (r=0.99) was observed between the pairs. More incidence was found (78.57%) in the 20mm to 30 mm category. The length is important in diagnosis, anatomy and anthropology. Conclusion: Length of styloid process in sample was not significantly different from the value mentioned in the text book. Bilateral Positive linear correlation was observed.

  25. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on knowledge regarding Juvenile Delinquency among the teachers of selected high school, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India Download Article

    Sonia Behera, Sinmayee Kumari Devi*
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (379-384)
    • No of Download = 331

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    An evaluative approach and pre experimental design was adopted to assess the effectiveness of self instructional module on knowledge regarding juvenile delinquency, among the teachers in selected high school, Bhubaneswar. 30 samples were selected by purposive (non- probability) sampling technique. The study was conducted in selected four high schools like Mancahnath high school, Somanatha high school, V.S.S high school Bhubaneswar Odisha, Pilot study was conducted, the tool and the study design was found to be feasible. Structured questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of the teacher followed by implementation of Self instruction module regarding juvenile delinquency. Results of the study revealed that, SIM was effective in all areas. There was highly significant difference was found between the area wise score values of pre-test, post-test and overall score. Hence, the stated null hypothesis is rejected and statistical hypothesis was accepted (P<0.05). Based on the findings it is recommended that, the study can be replicated in a large number of samples and a similar study can be conducted among parents to developed knowledge regarding juvenile delinquency.

  26. Histopathological effect of clomiphene citrate on epididymis Original study Download Article

    Dr Rohul Afza, Dr Ashfaq Ul Hassan*, Dr Shazia Nazir, Muzzafar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (385-392)
    • No of Download = 283

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    Clomiphene is a commonly used drug. It is used for Multiple Purposes and the role of clomiphene is under investigation in more diseases. Clomiphene citrate is used for medical induction of ovulation. It acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), having both estrogen agonist and antagonist properties. Clomiphene binds and blocks estrogen receptors in hypothalamus (i.e. antiestrogen. The effect of Clomiphene is not limited to the tissues only but serious side effects on long term use have been reported. The current study is aimed at determining the effects of Clomiphene on Testis.

  27. Factors initiating tobacco use, attitude and awareness among residents of the hill area of eastern region of nepal Download Article

    Dr Ram Bilakshan Sah, Laxmi Subedi, Usha Shah, Nilambar Jha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (393-399)
    • No of Download = 276

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    BACKGROUND Tobacco use is considered a major public health hazard in the world. It is among the main preventable causes of untimely death, morbidity and mortality worldwide. OBJECTIVES To find out the association between factors initiating tobacco use and attitude towards tobacco use with awareness of tobacco consumption among residents of Dhankuta municipality. METHODS The cross-sectional study was conducted among residents of Dhankuta Municipality where 205 households were taken as subjects. Pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the study subjects and face to face interview was conducted. Chi-square test was applied to find out the association between factors initiating tobacco use and attitude towards tobacco use with awareness of tobacco consumption among residents of Dhankuta municipality. RESULTS People started consuming tobacco due to the presence of adult smokers in the family was seen more aware (13.6%) but the difference was not significant. The respondents those feel cut down tobacco use (10.6%) and feel guilty about their habit (10.6%) was seen more aware but the difference was not significant. The problem of tobacco consumption can be control by ban the production (50.5%), awareness program (41.5%) and behavior change (41.6%) was seen significantly more aware (P<0.05). CONCLUSION People started consuming tobacco due to the presence of adult smokers in the family, those feel cut down tobacco use and feel guilty about their habit was seen more aware but the difference was not significant. The problem of tobacco consumption can control by ban the production, awareness program and behavior change.

  28. Pancreatitis - A Review Download Article

    R Kishore kumar, M Radika, N Sriram , Ch. Madhava Reddy, C.Revathi
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (400-404)
    • No of Download = 372

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    Pancreas is an organ which is present in abdominal region and generally it secretes some enzymes and hormones into body, some adverse conditions this gland will results in inflammation leads to auto destruction which leads to the inflammation of pancreas which is known as pancreatitis, They are of two types which is divided on the severity cases they do have they own diagnosis test, sign and symptom helps in identification and they do cured by proper treatment of the disease condition this is not a life threatening disease if it is not treated will that may leads to death of the subject and they do have to follow some life style modifications in order to cure the gland completely.

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