Articles

  1. Bioactivity Screening of Soil Bacteria against Human Pathogens Download Article

    Loganathan Veerappan, Vinoth S, Thirunalasundari T
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (88-91)
    • No of Download = 306

    Abstract

    close

    Microorganisms have a profound effect on medical science as they not only infect & cause disease but also produce metabolic products that can cure infections. Soil happens to be a source for a variety of microorganisms. Most of the bacteria, particularly actinomycetes produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Though there are a number of antibiotics available, there is a pressing need for the discovery of new source for antimicrobials against the pathogens due to the development of drug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms. In addition to, new pathogenic strains are also developing and causing infection to human beings. Bioactive compounds are compounds that are produced by any living organism and are known to exhibit various biological activities both in-vitro & in-vivo. Bioactivity may be antimicrobial, antineoplastic, anticancerous, immunomodulation, antifertility & others. Soil bacteria were isolated by standard technique and by making use of selective media. The isolates were identified and subjected for preliminary screening to look for their ability to produce bioactive materials. A total of 36 strains were isolated from three different soil samples. 14 of them were found to have antibacterial activity against the human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, E.coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aureginosa and Salmonella typhi by preliminary screening. Further the selected (3) bacteria were grown in the suitable culture media for the production of bioactive metabolites by using rotary shake flask. The active metabolites was isolated by solvent extraction and concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure. The antimicrobial screening of the active metabolites showed prominent effect against the clinical pathogens under the study.

  2. Lucinactant: A new solution in treating neonatal respiratory distress syndrome NRDS Download Article

    Raafia Yousuf, Sidra Tanwir and Atta Abbas
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (92-96)
    • No of Download = 241

    Abstract

    close

    Lucinactant is a novel synthetic surfactant, approved by the FDA on March 6th 2012, for use in treatment of RDS. It’s superiority as compared to the previously approved surfactants lie in containing sinapultide, a 21-amino acid peptide also known as KL4 peptide, which has been designed to mimic the activity of human surfactant protein. Lucinactant is completely devoid of any animal derived components. It is the fifth drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of RDS. It has shown immense efficacy in phase two clinical trials and animal model studies and exhibited better efficiency when compared to other surfactants in both 24 hour and two week mortality rates of infants in RDS. Lucinactant tends reduce the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of alveolar surfaces and allows lungs to function normally. It was observed that the side effects were lesser with Lucinactant when compared with other naturally derived surfactants.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pupalia lappacea L.Juss Download Article

    A.Tamil Selvan, M.Rama Devi, N.Siva Subramanian, L.Srinivas, K.Prathyusha, K.Sri Silam, T.Lalappa, Usha Yadav
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (97-101)
    • No of Download = 255

    Abstract

    close

    Pupalia lappacea (L) Juss is an erect shrub used in folklore medicine to treat bone fractures and in inflammatory conditions. Methanolic extract of aerial parts shown is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the methanolic extract of Pupalia lappacea was screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema egg white induced paw oedema models. The methanolic extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In egg white induced model, methanolic extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited paw oedema significantly (p<0.01) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during prostaglandin formation during the inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. HPTLC analysis of the extract shows the presence of gallic acid 1.24g/ml, ferulic acid 2.00g/ml, chlorogenic acid 46.25g/ml and rutin 7.02 g/ml of the extract which were responsible for the claimed anti-inflammatory action in the animal models studied.

  4. Corticosteroid induced Disorders – An overview Download Article

    Koppula Shilpa, Gangisetty Sneha, Nallani Venkata Ramarao, Rama Rao Nadendla.
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (102-111)
    • No of Download = 282

    Abstract

    close

    Glucocorticoids are important in the treatment of many inflammatory, allergic, immunologic, and malignant disorders, and the toxicity of glucocorticoids is one of the commonest causes of iatrogenic illness associated with chronic inflammatory disease. Glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy is characterized by fast-twitch or type II muscle fiber atrophy. Corticosteroid (CS) therapy is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Osteoporosis remains one of its major complications. Steroid induced glaucoma is a form of open angle glaucoma occurring as an adverse effect of corticosteroid therapy. Glucocorticoids induce hepatic and extrahepatic insulin resistance. Glucocorticoid treatment impairs both glucose transport in fat and muscle cells. Corticosteroid-induced psychosis represents a spectrum of psychological changes that can occur at any time during treatment. Cushing’s syndrome describes the signs and symptoms associated with prolonged exposure to inappropriately high levels of the hormone cortisol. Physicians must be aware of these adverse effects and be equipped to manage them.

  5. The flaws in health practice in post-operative management of a patient in tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan. Download Article

    Sundus Kirmani, Rohma Hashmi, Atta Abbas
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (112-115)
    • No of Download = 271

    Abstract

    close

    Introduction Congenital urinary tract obstructions are common cause of kidney damage which presents itself without symptoms leading to abnormalities in blood filtration and consequently retarded kidney function. A cohort study was conducted in such patient to find out the short comings in treatment strategy. Case presentation A four years old child, weighing 14 kg was brought with severe constipation, fever, chest congestion and cough later developed left eye disorientation after admission to hospital, diagnosed with urinary tract obstruction, indicating acidosis and loss of electrolytes due to excessive loss of water. His therapy management included surgical treatment, dialysis to improve his electrolyte levels within the normal range with the treatment of chest congestion and fever. Conclusion This case study reports the post operative treatment of congenital urinary tract obstructions in a tertiary care hospital and highlights the discrepancies observed. Antibiotic rationality and irrational prescribing was observed. The case study highlights the need of a clinical pharmacist in the health care team.

  6. Nano-Medicine Global Market Download Article

    Govind Girase.
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (116-118)
    • No of Download = 356

    Abstract

    close

    Late 19th century was evident of intelligent biomaterial; which has changed researcher’s perspective towards science and technology. This intelligent biomaterial is envisioned to have huge impact on Healthcare from sequential signalling of biomedical molecule, mimicking natural gene, an effective drug carrier, to high resolution diagnostic tool. From drug discovery aspect many of NCE fail to reach therapeutic potential due to PK/ PD profile. Nanotechnology has changed the face of drug discovery form chemical evaluation to structure of proteins in signalling pathways and development of chemical antibody. Nanotechnology from lab to market approval is long process due to regulatory evaluation. Though it seems to be bright future market it has to go through a long process from being innovation to complete market product. This makes whole process expensive making investor reluctant to invest in big projects.Western countries is aware of dramatic potential of nano-projects; which has its limitation in financial investments; with major challenge of transforming nano science to commercial pharmaceutical product.

  7. A descriptive study on newborn care among postnatal mothers inselected maternity centersin madurai, Tamilnadu. Download Article

    Darling .B. jiji, Ranjita.S. Wankhede, Bazil Alfred Benjamin
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (119-124)
    • No of Download = 755

    Abstract

    close

    The newborn health challenge faced by India is more formidable than that experienced by any other country in the world. The newborn health is inevitably affected by the traditional care practices of the mothers causing high infant morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study were determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of postnatal mothers regarding new born care and find out the association between knowledge, attitude and practice of postnatal mothers regarding new born care and to determine the association between these as well as with the selected demographic variables. A descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of postnatal mothers regarding new born care in selected maternity centers in Madurai. Survey approach was employed to select sample and it consisted of 100 postnatal mothers. Data was collected using structured interview schedule. Findings of the study showed that 65% of postnatal mothers had moderate knowledge; 61% had favorable attitude and 57% of them had high practice of new born care. There was a significant association between knowledge and attitude (r=+0.567), knowledge and practice (r=+0.388), attitude and practice (r=+0.321) .There was a significant association between knowledge and education, monthly family income and obstetrical score at p<0.05. Findings of the study indicated the need to conduct frequent assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of postnatal mothers regarding new born care. Awareness and attitude of the mothers towards new born care still has lots of lacunae especially in those who belong to the lower socio economic status and poorly educated postnatal mothers. So it is imperative to provide comprehensive training in the field of new born care for mothers during pregnancy.

  8. Pneumonia and respiratory failure from Swine origin Influenza H1N1 Download Article

    Saba Zubair
    • Article Type: Editorial
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (125-126)
    • No of Download = 230

    Abstract

    close

    The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple re-assortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days.6 Symptoms of the 2009 “swine flu” pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans are similar to those of seasonal influenza and of influenza-like illness in general. They include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. In children, signs of severe disease include apnea, tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, dehydration, altered mental status, and extreme irritability.7 Endemic influenza A (H1N1) (swine flu) tends to cause high morbidity but low mortality rates (1-4%). The most common cause of death is respiratory failure; other causes of death are pneumonia, high fever leading to neurological problems, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalance. Fatalities are more likely in young children and the elderly.

  9. Monoherbal Formulation Development for Laxative activity Download Article

    Manimaran Sellappan, Chandrasekar R.
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (127-132)
    • No of Download = 308

    Abstract

    close

    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia specifically approves flaxseed as a poultice for boils externally and demulcent or laxative internally. In this study monoherbal formulation development for laxative activity of flaxseed was undertaken. The plant Linum usitatissimum has showed higher percentage of total ash as well as alcohol soluble extractive values. The aqueous extract of Linum usitatissimum was prepared by using pilot scale extraction plant and spray drying unit. The qualitative phytochemical studies reveal the presence of amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins and proteins. From the available literatures it was found that Linum usitatissimum contains more number of amino acids. The formulated tablets showed acceptable pharmacopoeial limits and complies with specifications for thickness, hardness, friability and weight variation. The formulation has showed better laxative activity indicating additive property of the combined phytoconstituents of the plant.

  10. Carbamazepine Induced Steven Johnson Syndrome: A Case Report Download Article

    Sree Nagavalli K, Dinesh R, Moulya M.V, Yogananda R, Bharathi DR.
    • Article Type: Case Report
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (133-135)
    • No of Download = 257

    Abstract

    close

    Drugs are the most common cause that induces Steven Johnson syndrome (SJS) and includes antiepileptic drugs, antiretroviral drugs, anti-tuberculosis drugs, Sulphonamides, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, non-Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Multivitamins. The genetic markers are also the cause for carbamazepine induced Steven Johnson Syndrome. In our study, the antiepileptic drug (Carbamazepine) is the cause for Steven Johnson Syndrome. A female patient aged 25 years came to the hospital with the complaints of bubbling over the skin and all over the body with papillary vesicles associated with pain and irritation, fever, myalgia, and nausea. The patient is known case of Phenytoin induced Steven Johnson Syndrome. In this case the patient developed the Steven Johnson Syndrome approximately after one month after starting the carbamazepine.By the withdrawal of the drug, the condition of the patient was improved. Recent publications and post- marketing data suggest that Carbamazepine (CBZ) associated SJS/TEN occurs at a higher rate (about 2.5 cases per 1,000 new exposures) in Asian populations.

  11. A review on liver disorders and screening models of hepatoprotective agents Download Article

    Eswar Kumar.A, K.Susmitha, B.Swathy, E.Ramu, B.Venkatesh
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (136-150)
    • No of Download = 293

    Abstract

    close

    The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of bio chemicals necessary for digestion. The liver is necessary for survival; there is currently no way to compensate for the absence of liver function long term, although liver dialysis can be used short term. Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a broad term describing any single number of diseases affecting the liver. The liver supports almost every organ in the body and is vital for survival. Because of its strategic location and multidimensional functions, the liver is also prone to many diseases

  12. Novel treatments for asthma: Corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory agents. Download Article

    Ahmed Abdalla.
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (151-153)
    • No of Download = 145

    Abstract

    close

    Asthma management is a challenge due to the prevalence of disease in the world. Based on the immunological and inflammatory mechanisms of asthma, corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory participate greatly in the treatment plan. Due to different reasons, there is still an unmet need to develop new agents in this field. A lot of compounds with anti-inflammatory effect are investigated in both pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  13. Overview on Recurrent Pregnancy Loss etiology and risk factors Download Article

    Rasha A Mohamed, Asmaa Darwish, Amal Ghouraba, Rehab Elbanhawy, Samah Shehata, Al-shaymaa Darwish.
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (154-156)
    • No of Download = 231

    Abstract

    close

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) can be defined as two or three consecutive miscarriages before 20 weeks’ gestation; it affects approximately 1% to 2% of women. RPL is a multifactorial disease. It is very important to study the etiology and risk factors of RPL to find the best diagnostic tests and suitable therapeutic intervention. This article will discuss the current understanding etiologies and risk factors of RPL.

  14. Patient compliance: Challenges in management of cardiac diseases in Kuala Lumpur and Perak, Malaysia Download Article

    Ho Zhi Yin, Nagarajan Srinivasan, Rajan Ethiraj Ugandar, Rosli Mohd Ali, Kandasamy Balachandran.
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (157-168)
    • No of Download = 199

    Abstract

    close

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the degree of compliance among cardiac patients who attend the health facilities in Kuala Lumpur and Perak, Malaysia. The reasons for non-compliance and recommendations from healthcare professionals were also evaluated. Method A cross-sectional study of 400 patients and 100 healthcare professionals was carried out. This study utilizes variables on external factors and internal factors as the measurement tools. The questionnaire which consists of Morisky self-reported medication adherence questions was administered to patients and causes for non-compliance sought. Questionnaire for healthcare professionals was used to determine strategies that can improve compliance rate. Results The study revealed a 15.8% of high adherence rate, 54.3% of moderate adherence rate and 30% of poor adherence to cardiovascular disease medications. The chi-square tests showed the strong association between dependent and independent variables. The model chosen for testing the patient compliance through external and internal factors gives an R2 value of 85.0% with an adjusted R2 of 84.7%. The F value (317.187) was also significant (p=0.000) which means that the variables have better fit in the multivariate model. The major reasons determined for non-adherence were attitudes and beliefs, lifestyle, side effects and cost of medications. The study recommends that pharmacists and dispensing technicians should be adequately qualified to provide proper counselling to cardiac patients on their medicines and disease conditions. Conclusion The result of this study is of value to health care providers. Compliance to cardiovascular medications will avoid treatment failures encountered in therapy.

Registered and Approved by National Science Library (NSL),National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources(NISCAIR),
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research,New Delhi, India"